How to Paint Enamel on Metal?

20181031Enamel is one of the most durable paints available. Metal is one of the most durable materials available. Therefore, painting metal with enamel will result in a very durable object, regardless of what the object is. As long as you pay attention to the preparation of your metal before painting, you will end up with professional-looking results for very little money and time spent.

Sand or wire brush the metal object to remove any peeling paint, loose previous coating or rust spots.

Spray water from the sink or garden hose onto the metal object to thoroughly remove any sanding dust. Allow the metal object to dry.

Lay newspapers or a drop cloth carefully on an outdoor or garage work surface, as over spray from spray paint cannot be easily removed.

Apply the solvent or acid to the entire metal surface with the rag. Use a toothbrush to reach into crevices. The solvent will remove any oils or difficult debris to further prepare the surface of the metal. Allow the solvent to dry.

Spray a thin coat of primer onto the object. Be sure to use wide, sweeping strokes to prevent the primer from pooling and dripping. Spray paint comes out fast, so you may wish to practice your spray technique on a piece of cardboard first. Be sure to thoroughly coat the entire metal object with primer.

Allow the primer to dry for several hours or overnight.

Spray a thin coat of enamel onto the metal object, using the same technique you used with the primer.

Allow the enamel to dry overnight, and then add another coat of enamel. Allow to dry overnight again before using the metal object.

This article comes from hunker edit released

How To Torch Fire Enamel

Teaching yourself how to torch fire enamel? Don’t worry, it’s not as difficult as it may seem. Although it can be an intimidating project at first glance, torch enamelling is a simple way of creating varied finishes that will stand out, and help you to refine your torch firing techniques. Use our step–by-step-guide below on how to torch fire enamel, and you’ll be creating unique designs in no time at all.

Completely new to enamelling? Enamelling refers to the technique used to coat a surface of metal with enamel. The enamel is a coating of melted glass that, once heated, will fuse to the metal surface leaving you with a professional finish in a colour and effect of your choice. Most enamels come in powder form, and when heated and fused to the metal you’re working with, will transform into a unique glass coating.

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Enamel Structure and Composition

Enamel is the most mineralized tissue of the body, forming a very hard, thin, translucent layer of calcified tissue that covers the entire anatomic crown of the tooth. It can vary in thickness and hardness on each tooth, from tooth to tooth and from person to person. It can also vary in color (typically from yellowish to grayish white) depending on variations in the thickness, quality of its mineral structure and surface stains. Enamel has no blood or nerve supply within it. It is enamel’s hardness that enables teeth to withstand blunt, heavy masticatory forces. Enamel is so hard because it is composed primarily of inorganic materials: roughly 95% to 98% of it is calcium and phosphate ions that make up strong hydroxyapatite crystals. Yet, these are not pure crystals, because they are carbonated and contain trace minerals such as strontium, magnesium, lead, and fluoride. These factors make “biological hydroxyapatite” more soluble than pure hydroxyapatite.

Approximately 1% to 2% of enamel is made up of organic materials, particularly enamel-specific proteins called enamelins, which have a high affinity for binding hydroxyapatite crystals. Water makes up the remainder of enamel, accounting for about 4% of its composition.

The inorganic, organic, and water components of enamel are highly organized: millions of carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals are arranged in long, thin structures called rods that are 4 µm to 8 µm in diameter. It is estimated that the number of rods in a tooth ranges from 5 million in the lower lateral incisor to 12 million in the upper first molar. In general, rods extend at right angles from the dento–enamel junction (the junction between enamel and the layer below it called dentin) to the tooth surface. Surrounding each rod is a rod sheath made up of a protein matrix of enamelins. The area in between rods is called interrod enamel, or interrod cement. While it has the same crystal composition, crystal orientation is different, distinguishing rods from interrod enamel.

Minute spaces exist where crystals do not form between rods. Typically called pores, they contribute to enamel’s permeability, which allows fluid movement and diffusion to occur, but they also cause variations in density and hardness in the tooth, which can create spots that are more prone to demineralization – the loss of calcium and phosphate ions – when oral pH becomes too acidic and drops below 5.5. In demineralization, the crystalline structure shrinks in size, while pores enlarge.

Enamel is formed by epithelial cells called ameloblasts. Just before a tooth erupts from the gums, the ameloblasts are broken down, removing enamel’s ability to regenerate or repair itself. This means that when enamel is damaged by injury or decay, it cannot be restored beyond the normal course of remineralization. When a tooth erupts, it is also not fully mineralized. To completely mineralize the tooth, calcium, phosphorous, and fluoride ions are taken up from saliva to add a layer of 10 µm to 100 µm of enamel over time.

There are conditions that can affect the formation of enamel and thus increase the risk of caries. These include the genetic disorder amelogenesis imperfecta, in which enamel is never completely mineralized and flakes off easily, exposing softer dentin to cariogenic bacteria. Other conditions are linked with increased enamel demineralization, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and celiac disease.

This article comes from dentalcare edit released

Enamel Applications and Preparation

For more than two thousand years, goldsmiths have fused glass onto their work for color enrichment. Wonderful enameled work can be found from many ancient cultures, providing familiar icons of the technical skill and aesthetic sensibilities of their makers.

In our own century enamel has benefited from scientific and industrial research and because of this it has grown from being just one element of the goldsmith’s art to a position of prominence on its own. One need only think of enameled housewares, architectural trim and utilitarian objects to understand the importance of enamel in our society.

For a complete description to enamel the reader is referred to books specifically on that topic such as Kunsthandwerkliches Emaillieren by Erhard Brepohl, third edition, VEB Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig, 1983. But even those who do not intend to incorporate enamels in their work as a primary element should have an understanding of the historical importance of enamel and a general idea of the process. It is for those people that the following pages are included here.

enamel is a simple process that uses very little specialized equipment. The electric kiln in which the metal is brought up to temperature is the single most expensive piece of equipment, and even this has the advantage of lending itself to several other uses in the studio. Of far more importance and requiring greater skill is the preparation of a piece preliminary to enamel. Without intelligent design and proper goldsmithing work, enameled pieces are simply colored bits of metal.

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Enamel Solutions

WHAT IS ENAMEL?

Borosilicate glass that may contain aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, zircon dioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, fluorine, etc. depending on the area and characteristic of use of oxides of sodium, potassium, lithium, barium, calcium, zinc, magnesium, strontium, etc. is fritted either in powder or liquid form. This process results in the coating material known as enamel.

ELECTROSTATIC AND CONVENTIONAL FRITS

  • Primer Frits
  • Top Frits
  • Super Opaque Frits
  • Semi-opaque Frits
  • Self-Colored Frits
  • Acid-resistant Primer and Top Frits
  • Heater Frits
  • Strong Acid-resistant Frits for Special Uses
  • Transparent and Semi-transparent Frits
  • Easy-clean Frits
  • Majolica Frits
  • Two-layer Single-fired Frits
  • Pyrolytic and Catalytic Frits
  • Mill Additives

This article comes from gizemfrit edit released

What Is Tooth Enamel?

Have you ever wondered about tooth enamel? What is it? How important is it? How can you protect it? Here are the answers to all of your enamel questions.

The enamel on your teeth is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance in your body. It covers the outer layer of each tooth and it is the most visible part of the tooth. The enamel is made up mostly of minerals, primarily hydroxyapatite. The color can vary from light yellow to a grayish white; since it is semi translucent, it is only partially responsible for the color of your teeth.

Enamel plays a very important role in protecting your teeth from decay, so it is important to do everything that you can to prevent your enamel from eroding. It forms a strong barrier that protects the inner layers of your teeth from the effects of acids and plaque; it also protects the sensitive inner layers of your teeth from foods and beverages that are very hot or very cold.

If your enamel is destroyed, your body does not make more to replace it. Unlike other parts of your body – like your bones, for instance – enamel does not contain any living cells, so it cannot regenerate.

You can protect your enamel by avoiding foods that are known to cause a lot of damage. Sugary foods and acidic fruits and beverages are among the most damaging to your tooth enamel. When those substances stick to your teeth and interact with bacteria in your mouth, lactic acid is produced, which can damage your enamel. Avoid these foods when you can, and if you do consume them, remember to brush thoroughly afterward.

Very hard foods, like hard candy or ice cubes, can also damage your enamel by causing it to crack or chip, so these foods should also be avoided. If you do indulge in hard candy, suck on it but don’t bite down on it.

Of course, you can also protect your enamel by practicing good oral hygiene habits, like regular brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, flossing, and visiting your dental professional for regular professional cleanings.

This article comes from colgate edit released