What Is Emissivity In Thermal Imaging cameras?

To read correct temperatures, another important factor needs to be taken into account. That is a factor known as emissivity.

Emissivity is the efficiency, which an object emits infrared radiation and is highly dependent on properties of the material or object. It is a measure of the efficiency of a surface to emit thermal imaging cameras energy relative to a perfect black body source. It directly scales the intensity of the thermal imaging cameras emission and all real values are less than 1.0.

The emissivity may be highly dependent on the surface morphology, roughness, oxidation, spectral wavelength, temperature and view angle. A measurement that does not account for the real emissivity of a surface will appear “colder” than it actually is.

For agricultural applications, many organic materials and materials with very rough surfaces have emissivity values approaching 1.0. For other applications, including power line and solar cell inspection, the surface might be a highly polished glass or metal, both of which can have much lower emissivity values.

It is important for the thermal imaging cameras to be set to the correct emissivity or incorrect temperatures will be measured.

This article comes from dronezon edit released

Advantages of Porcelain Enamel Cookware


The first advantage of porcelain enamel cookware is its safety compared to teflon, cast iron and aluminium pots and pans; the teflon pans, indeed, scratch themselves after an intense use and release toxic chemical materials. Cast iron and aluminium pots, on the other hand, react with acid ingredients such as vinegar, lemon and egg yolks.

It is important to buy high quality porcelain enamel cookware, so that the coating remains always in good condition, without scratches and cracks, also after an intense use.


In cooking, the enamel porcelain kitchenware is ideal to prepare tasty dishes while, at the same time, helping you to stay in good shape; indeed, just a small amount of fat (butter, oil etc.) is needed to prevent food from sticking to the pan. If you are on a diet, consider buying some porcelain enamel pots that will help you to reduce cooking fats and oils!

Cooks omogeneously

Furthermore porcelain tends to distribute homogeneously the heat, allowing you to cook rapidly and efficiently. This will benefit the quality of the food you eat, by making it tender and uniformly cooked while preserving its organoleptic properties. As a result, porcelain enamel cookware is ideal for preparing meat and fish dishes.


Chefs use porcelain enamel to cook a wide variety of different foods because, unlike most of the nonstick cookware, it can go both in the oven and in the microwave. Imagine using your porcelain enamel casserole to prepare a delicious truffle lasagna, or your enamel pot to cook creamy soups and sauces.

Easy cleaning

Another advantage of the porcelain enamel cookware is that it is easy to clean: you just need a quick wipe with a dish sponge & detergent to clean it fast and properly! The advantage is twofold: on one hand, you will be able to use less detergent and thus avoid polluting the environment; on the other hand, using less hot water will allow you to save precious money on your bills.


A porcelain enamel pot does cost more than other nonstick pots like those in aluminium or teflon, but unlike them it is an heirloom piece that you can pass on to your sons and daughters.

This article comes from dishesonly edit released

New purple-blue ceramic pigments based on CoZr4(PO4)6

Due to the outstanding stability and resistivity to dissolution agents of the compounds related to NaZr2(PO4)3 (NZP family), our attention has been focussed on CoZr4(PO4)6 and its performance as an inorganic ceramic pigment for coloration of ceramic glazes. Mixed cobalt zirconium phosphate has been prepared by a solid state reaction and a sol–gel method and was characterised (through thermal analysis, XRD, heating microscopy, SEM, VIS-spectrophotometry and lightfastness measurement) for the first time as a ceramic pigment. In order to reduce the cobalt content in the samples the series of Co1−xMgxZr4(PO4)6 (x = 0.25; 0.5) have also been prepared using a solid state reaction and were investigated with the same techniques.

It was shown that a solid state reaction provides the formation of CoZr4(PO4)6 through a three component system stage (ZrP2O7, ZrO2 and CoP2O6/Co2P2O7), when employment of the sol–gel method leads to the direct formation of a CoZr4(PO4)6 phase at lower temperatures. During further thermal treatment, with an increase of the calcination temperature up to 1200–1300 °C, an additional phase of Zr2O(PO4)2 appears in the composition. A solid state reaction can be suggested as a preferable method for achieving enhanced thermal stability of this phosphate and the substitution of Co by Mg not only helps to reduce the content of Co in the sample compositions, but also to improve their thermal characteristics.

Thus, the obtained results indicate that employment of the more complicated sol–gel method does not provide any advantages at high calcination temperatures with respect to the phase composition, thermal stability, homogeneity and particle size distribution of the obtained samples and the conventional ceramic route does not deteriorate on the basis of these parameters. An irregular change of the colour parameters was observed for the samples during the calcination and the temperature of 1300 °C and 6–12 h of soaking time were chosen for ceramic pigment synthesis. Colouring ability of the obtained samples has been analysed with two types of ceramic glazes. The mixed phosphates exhibit saturated purple-blue colour, which becomes lighter only with an increase of Mg content to x = 0.5. Enamelled samples showed excellent lightfastness and the investigated compounds can be considered as high performance inorganic ceramic pigments for coloration of ceramic glazes.

This article comes from sciencedirect edit released

Porcelain Enamel Cookware: everything You Need to Know

20190108Nowadays porcelain enamel kitchenware makes a beautiful impression in kitchens all over the word. Porcelain enamel indeed seduces both food enthusiasts and design lovers because combines performance and aesthetics. But… which is the difference between porcelain and porcelain enamel?

As many of you may know, porcelain is a type of ceramic that is composed mostly of a white clay called kaolin with the addition of feldspars, quartz, steatite and other substances. The whole compound is cooked at 1300-1400 degrees. As well as clay and glass ceramics, porcelain may be glazed or not.

The porcelain enamel cookware is made by melting the porcelain together with a stronger metal component. That’s why the enamel porcelain is characterized by high hardness and low porosity. And that’s why porcelain enamel kitchenware is at once strong, durable and lightweight.

This article comes from dishesonly edit released

Porcelain cover coat frits

Porcelain enamel is a glass of a particular chemical composition and physical nature determined for the surface protection of metal.

Enamel cover coat frit is a form of glass bonded to metal on a molecular level at high temperature.

This results in a typical and unique composite material of glass and metal, which combines the positive qualities of both materials.

Cover coat have good opacity and gloss with clean and fine surface, but they can’t be directly coated on the body metal, they require the matched ground cover coat frits. The firing temperature of cover coat frit is lower than that of ground cover coat frit.

This article comes from sinopigment edit released

Vitreous Enamel Frit

Vitreous enamel frit frit is a traditional coating that has been used for generations, but remains a tough modern finish.

It has impressive qualities of resistance to physical damage, heat, corrosion, ultra-violet light and yet it is compatible with many metal substrates.

It is suited to the demands of hundreds of products and capable of being decorated by several processes.

We can supply vitreous enamel frit either as frit, or ground into powder, as individual frits or blended for specific uses.

These products are for professional application, and need a heat source in the region of 800’C to fuse the enamel frit onto the metal substrate.

This article comes from M&CT edit released

Reactive Ice Transparent Frit

Transparent frit provides a unique effect in fused art. The glass contains elements that react to the metal content in other colors, creating intriguing color shifts and halos around contrasting pieces.

Transparent frits are made from crushed, screened and magnetically cleaned Bullseye Fusible sheet glass. Use transparent frit for your pate de verre and glass casting projects, or add pizazz to your fusing and kiln-formed glass jewelry.

Packaged in a wide-mouth 5 lb. jar. Fully compatible 90 COE. All Bullseye Stringers, Frit and Confetti are mixable for quantity discount.

This article comes from delphiglass edit released

Cadmium Red Deep Pigment

Cadmium red deep pigment (PR108). Synthetic Inorganic pigment (Cadmium Sulphoselenide). Opaque. Good tinting strength. Excellent Lightfastness. Low oil absorption with slow drying rate. Suitable for all media except exterior. Used since early 20th Century.

Cadmium red deep pigment is cadmium zinc sulfoselenide (CdS, CdSe) produced by co-precipitating and calcining, at high temperature, a mixture of cadmium sulfide and selenide sulfide in varied ratios forming a partially crystalline structure with sometimes hexagonal or cubic forms. Cadmium pigments are the most durable yellow, orange and red inorganic pigments commercially available. They have excellent chemical and heat stability, and can be used in chemically aggressive environments and durable applications without color fade.

Cadmium sulfoselenide pigments were developed in response to the need for stable shades of cadmium orange to red colors. Cadmium and selenide salts are co-precipitated and then heated to 300 °C.

This article comes from naturalpigments edit released

The use of vitreous enamel coatings

Many reinforced concrete structures on Army installations represent critical assets that are vital to storing, maintaining and transporting vehicles and material needed to support the warfighter. Unfortunately reinforced concrete can have a short service life if the reinforcement steel in the concrete corrodes.

A series of new vitreous enamel coatings that contain hydraulically-reactive calcium silicates and aluminates have been developed to provide additional protection for the steel and to increase the service life of reinforced concrete structures. The new series of vitreous enamel coatings combine a layer of alkaline- resistant basecoat vitreous enamel
with an outer coating of vitreous enamel
that incorporates dicalcium silicate, tricalcium silicate and calcium aluminate and alumino-ferrite. The basecoat protects the steel while the calcium silicates in the outer layer hydrate when placed in fresh concrete and chemically bond to the surrounding concrete paste.

The bond strength between the concrete and steel is increased two to three times that developed with uncoated steel. The enamel over the steel produces durable corrosion protection. Tests with steel stay-in-place forms demonstrate the usefulness of the vitreous enamel coating steel.

This article comes from researchgate edit released

Finding the Best Choice of Porcelain Frit

Porcelain frit is a crucial component in decorating enamels, determining the firing behavior, appearance and in-service performance for the decoration.

Porcelain frit selection for particular application and firing conditions, as well as use environment, is an engineering compromise. The best choice must simultaneously optimize several properties that depend on the glass chemistry and structure in subtle and often opposing ways.

Decorators are encouraged to discuss their specific needs with their enamel supplier to reach the best solution, rather than assume that a general-formulation enamel will be able to do multiple jobs.

This article comes from ceramicindustry edit released