The Differences Between Hard-Anodized & Porcelain Enamel

Walk in to any kitchen supply store, and the shine from all the glistening pots and pans may make you reach for your sunglasses. Your senses are immediately assaulted: all the cookware claims to be the newest and best thing to hit the market.

No-stick, non-stick, stick-resistant, a little stick — who can you believe, and how can you determine what shiny or brightly colored saucepan is the right one for you? Two terms jousting for the title of “best cookware” are hard anodized and hard enamel cookware made of porcelain. Distinguishing between the two isn’t difficult if you know how to wend your way through the language of surfaces on pots and pans.

Building a Better Model

Realizing the weaknesses in aluminum cookware, but aiming to maintain the high conductivity of the element, scientists at Calphalon created hard-anodized aluminum cookware in the 1960s. Through an electro-chemical process, they fused the aluminum in an acid bath jolted with an electrical current, resulting in an oxide blend that had greater resistance than the original aluminum. The process also created a lovely gray coloring, and the scientists noticed that food was less apt to stick than with the original aluminum.

Porcelain Hard Enamel Cookware

Porcelain, a combination of kaolin clay and glass fired at extremely high temperatures, was first fired onto iron in the 1800s, creating a pot lining that eliminated the leaching of iron into food. Through the years, aluminum and stainless steel have also been fused with porcelain, making a hard porcelain enamel product that adds to the myriad of cookware choices.

Benefits of Hard-Anodized Cookware

Touch a hard-anodized pot to realize its strength. The smooth cooking surface is stick-resistant, and its solid surface won’t corrode, leach or suffer abrasions. If satellites in the sky can depend on the strength of hard-anodized parts to protect them from the rigors of space, then a mere saucepan is sure to have a long life. Hard-anodized cookware also has excellent heat conduction and cleans safely.

Hard-anodized saucepans are safe at high temperatures, making them ideal for stovetop-to-oven cooking. Just be sure to use potholders when removing the cookware from the oven.

Porcelain Enamel Pros

The high-temperature firing of porcelain onto iron has driven the cookware market for over a century. The process was then expanded to include stainless steel and aluminum. The porcelain isn’t a coating over a base metal, but a fusion of the two. The rock-hard surface is resistant to scratching and peeling. While aluminum and stainless steel porcelain enamels are lighter second cousins to cast iron in the realm of cookware, it’s the heft of the iron that gives porcelain enamel its edge with serious cooks. Aluminum porcelain enamel doesn’t leach, making it a safer choice than unfused aluminum.

Disadvantages of Porcelain Enamel Cookware

Disadvantages of porcelain enamel cookware include the enamel color turning darker with heavy use. This, however, does not affect the cooking qualities of the pot; instead, it simply indicates years of use.

A Sticky Subject

Hard anodization of aluminum not only creates a smooth surface; the result of the fusion process is that the base aluminum becomes non-porous. Food adheres when first put into the pan, but as it nears doneness, it’s released from its bond. Hard-anodized cookware is stick-resistant.

Porcelain enamel over iron, aluminum or stainless steel is non-stick. Bits may be left behind, especially during high-heat cooking, but they scrape off with little effort. A good soak in warm water rinses away any residue without effort.

Safe Cooking Considerations

Both hard-anodized aluminum cookware and porcelain-fused enamel are considered safe. The biggest concern is leaching from the base metal to the food, and if chips in the porcelain are avoided, they are not dangerous. The FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition has deemed enamel-coated cookware safe, including products that are imported.

A Beauty Contest

Hard-anodized aluminum cookware is one color: gray. That’s the result of the oxidation that takes place during the chemical fusion process. Porcelain enamel over a base metal are manufactured in a riot of colors, which makes them ideal additions to well-decorated kitchens. Many cooks tend to collect porcelain enamel cookware in one color and display them as accessories instead of hiding them in cupboards.

This article comes from hunker edit released

Natural Pigments – Chromium Oxide Green

Chromium oxide green aqueous pigment dispersion, also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromia, is one of four oxides of chromium. It is commonly called chrome green when used as a pigment; however it was referred to as viridian when it was first discovered.

Origin and History

The element chromium was found in lead chromate in 1797 by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin. The name chromium was given to the element because so many colored compounds can be produced from it. As early as 1809, chromium oxide was green being used as an enamel in porcelain factories, but it was not yet used as a painting pigment. It has been written by several sources that chromium oxide green was not used as a pigment until 1862, but there is evidence to suggest that it was used earlier. The pigment has been identified on a J.M.W. Turner painting which dates back to 1812. An 1815 journal entry by George Field included a homemade example of the pigment, and in 1831 Vergnaud discussed two different preparation methods, but said that the pigment was not widely used because of its high price. A catalogue of pigments printed around 1840 lists a green oxide of chromium, which is believed to be chromium oxide green. Also, in 1969 Kühn, using microscopy and emission spectroscopy, found chromium oxide green in three paintings which dated between 1845 and 1850. It is widely accepted that chromium oxide green was used before the hydrated version. Their use has been limited, though, since these greens are much more expensive than the emerald greens or chrome greens, due to the preparation process. It is sometimes used to make lightfast paints when mixed with yellows. In the past it was used in automotive finishes and to make bank notes.


The first man to prepare chromium oxide was Pannetier in Paris, but his process was kept hidden. Guignet invented a two-step process for preparing the chemical. His first step was to heat boric acid and potassium bichromate, a process known as calcining, which produced a porous mass. The second step produces hydrated oxide, boric acid, and some boron, after the mass is washed in cold water, or hydrolyzed. This is only one way of several for the preparation of chromium oxide green. There is no specific chemical composition for hydrated chromium oxide green since different preparation processes produce the chemical with boron, while other processes produce the chemical without boron.

Permanence and Compatibility

Hydrated chromium oxide green is permanent, but chromium oxide green is more stable and is one of the most permanent pigments an artist uses. It will not react with hydrochloric acid or with sodium hydroxide.

Oil Absorption and Grinding

Chromium oxide green absorbs a small amount of oil (26 g oil per 100 g of pigment).

This article comes from naturalpigments edit released


Enamel powder coating is a protective and decorative finish

The advanced method of applying enamel powder coating is used for both protective and decorative finishes to any metal which is used by consumers and industry.

The process uses a powder which consists of resin and fine pigment particles, electrostatically sprayed on the metal surface. This allows the powder particles to become charged and adhere to the metal surface while being electrically grounded, until the powder has heated up and smoothly fused with the metal in a curing oven. This provides a durable, uniform, attractive and high-quality finish.

Advantages & Benefits Of Enamel Powder Coating

In North America, the enamel powder coating process is a fast growing technology for adding finishes to products. It accounts for more than 10% of all industrial based finishing applications.

Advantage – Enamel Powder Coating Is Durable

Enamel powder coating provides businesses, consumers, and industries a long-lasting, economical, and durable finish with a range of color options available for nearly any type of metal.

Also, a powder coated surface will be more resistant against scratches, chipping, wear, and fading compared to other type of finishes. You can choose from an almost unlimited selection of colors, including, glossy, high-gloss, flat, fluorescent, candies, clear, hammer toned, iridescent, glitter and wrinkle.

The colors will remain vibrant and bright much longer than other finishes too. The selection of textures range between a smooth surface to matte or wrinkled finishes.

Advantage – Protecting the Environment

Not only does enamel powder coating provide great finish, it is better on the environment. Liquid painting finishes that consists of solvents are known to be pollutants of volatile organic compounds. VOC’s wreak havoc on the air we breath – nobody wants that!

What’s awesome about enamel powder coating is that it does not contain any solvents! It only releases very negligible amounts of VOC’s, if any within the atmosphere. This means that finishers no longer have a need of purchasing and maintaining expensive equipment for pollution control.

Advantage – Powder Coat to Save Money

Eliminating VOC’s and reducing waste saves money in the long term. Companies remain in compliance with U.S. Department of Environmental Protection Agency regulations.

The customer reaps huge benefits in money costs because the finish lasts so much longer vs. other metal finish methods. Enamel powder coating has many advantages.

This article comes from superior edit released

What is Vitreous Enamel Material?

Vitreous enamel material is simply a thin layer of glass fused at high temperature on to the surface of a metal.

The formal definition is : Vitreous enamel material can be defined as a material which is a vitreous solid obtained by smelting or fritting a mixture of inorganic materials.

The Collins English Dictionary defines enamel as “a coloured glassy substance, transparent or opaque, fused to the surface of articles made of metal, glass etc. for ornament or protection.” Vitreous enamel material is specifically on a metal base. It is thus defined as a vitreous, glass-like coating fused on to a metallic base.

It should not be confused with paint, which is sometimes called ‘enamel’. Paints cannot be vitreous enamel material. They do not have the hardness, heat resistance and colour stability that is only available with real vitreous enamel material. Beware of companies or products implying the use of enamel material. Check their credentials and warranties.

Vitreous enamel material is part of everyday life and found all around us. You will use it on many kitchen surfaces including cookers, saucepans and washing machine drums. You will find enamelled cast iron or steel baths and clock and watch faces. Out of doors, we use enamel material for street signs, Underground station signs, architectural panels, storage and treatment tanks and many other places. It is selected because it is weatherproof, vandal resistant, fireproof and because it lasts and lasts and lasts. Titanic’s Captain Smith’s enamelled bathtub has survived very well under the sea.

Enamel material is also used by artists and in jewellery, famously in Russia’s Fabergé eggs. Decorative enamelling was the first use of the process of enamelling, dating back to the 13th century BC. This type of enamel material is usually applied to copper and its alloys and to gold and silver. We make Vitreous Enamel material by smelting naturally occurring minerals, such as sand, feldspar, borax, soda ash, and sodium fluoride at temperatures between 1200 °C and 1350 °C until all of the raw materials have dissolved. Other metallic mineral may be added to give specific properties or colour. The molten glass which is formed is either quenched into water or through water-cooled rollers. This rapid cooling prevents crystallisation and is said to be in a metastable state. This material is called “frit”. To make a usable enamel the frit will be ground in a rotating ball mill either to produce a water-based slurry or a powder. Clays are used in the water-based products to give a product which can be applied to the metal by spraying, dipping or painting by brush. At the milling stage, other minerals will be added to give the properties which are required of the final enamel. Colour is introduced by the use of metal compounds. The recognisable blue enamel is produced using cobalt. Powdered enamels are applied by dusting or using electrostatic equipment. The final glassy finish so typical of vitreous enamel is produced by firing in furnaces at temperatures up to 900 °C. As it cools, it fuses to give glass-coated metal. This ‘firing’ process gives vitreous enamel material its unique combination of properties. The smooth glass-like surface is hard; it is scratch, chemical and fire resistant. It is easy to clean and hygienic. It all started 3500 years ago in Cyprus. Since 1500 BC, enamelling has been a wonderful, durable, attractive and reliable material. You will recognise it as the material used to produce the now highly collectable advertising signs produced during the early 20th Century.

This article comes from vea edit released


International standard chromium oxide green

Green chrome oxide and other pigmented oxides for a variety of applications including porcelain enamel, refractory, and more.

1.Used in the dyeing agent of porcelain enamel and ceramic, leatheroid, structure material and fireproof material;
2.The chrome smelt and chromium carbide;
3.polishing material.;
4.catalyst, paint,ink.

Direct to Metal Industrial Enamel

High Gloss Enamel Surface Coating

Nutech Industrial Enamel is a modified single pack urethane enamel made in a high gloss finish. It can be applied to a variety of surfaces including Concrete, Timber and Metal Surfaces that have been primed with a suitable Metal Primer. Industrial Enamel is for general purpose use.


Industrial Enamel has excellent durability for a single pack coating. It has very good corrosive and abrasive properties. It is hard-wearing when cured and has excellent Gloss and Colour retention.

Drying and Recoating

Industrial Enamel will be touch dry after 25mins (at 25°C) and can be recoated within 4 hours or after 24 hours.

A hard cure will be achieved after 7 days.

This article comes from nutechpaint edit released

Simple and Efficient Rout for Synthesis of Ceramic Pigment

Ceramic pigments are the general name of the pigments used on ceramics, including glaze stain, underglaze stain and body stain. In the process of production, these pigments need to be calcined at different temperatures. The requirements for temperature are different according to different use of pigments.

In previous reports, pure and crystalline Mg1-xCoxAl2O4 powders were obtained only after annealing the as-prepared amorphous powders at high temperatures.

Few reports on this topic show that the preparation of same ceramic pigments involves annealing at 1400°C for 3h. Even applying new methods such as sonochemical synthesis requires heating treatment at 1000°C at least for 2 hours for the formation of pure cobalt aluminate spinel phase.

Generally, increasing temperature treatment increases the crystallite sizes of powders. So preparation of single phase spinel nanoparticles at lower temperatures is the advantage of our liquid combustion method and makes it technically simple and cost effective.

This article comes from cyberleninka edit released

Cloverdale Paints Industrial Enamel

Industrial enamel is the most commonly used material to protect steel. Industrial enamel systems for steel structures have developed over the years to comply with industrial environmental legislation and in response to demands from bridge and building owners for improved durability performance.

Previous five and six coat systems have been replaced by typically three coat alternatives, and the latest formulations have focussed on application in even fewer numbers of coats, but with increasing individual film thickness. Examples of this are epoxy and polyester glass flake coatings that are designed for high build thickness in one or two coat applications, and single coat high build elastomeric urethane coatings, up to 1000μm thick.

Modern specifications usually comprise a sequential coating application of Industrial enamel or alternatively paints applied over metal coatings to form a ‘duplex’ coating system. The protective Industrial enamel systems usually consist of primer, undercoat(s) and finish coats. Each coating ‘layer’ in any protective system has a specific function, and the different types are applied in a particular sequence of primer followed by intermediate / build coats in the shop, and finally the finish or top coat either in the shop or on site.

This article comes from steelconstruction edit released

Acid resistance black frit

Black Frit Product Description:

1, Strong adhesion and smooth enamel surface.

2, Achieve the perfect enamel surface in just one time coating and firing.

3, Black frit can be applied to enamelware, cookware, kitchenware, kitchen ventilator, oven, disinfection cabinet and architecture panels in glossy black color.

4, Black frit can be both single used or mixed with other frit according to firing temperature.

Direct-on Black Frit Usage Introduction:

It’s used on low carbon cold rolled steel plate and can get very strong adhesion.

This article comes from

All the information on cadmium yellow

Cadmium yellow pigments are stable, inorganic colouring agents which are produced in a range of rich, vibrant shades of yellow, orange, red, and maroon. Modern day pigments are carefully engineered products manufactured in regulated chemical plants with full Health and Safety and Environmental permits under Responsible Care management and adherence. These cadmium yellow pigments have a carefully defined and engineered particle size, crystal structure, surface area and surface treatment to ensure they are not only correct for colour but also meet extremely low solubility and other key property limits.

The pigment chemistry is based on solid solutions of Cd,Zn, S, Se formed by calcining at high temperature to convert fully to a crystalline and stable hexagonal form, before undergoing a series of further treatments resulting in highly engineered pigment grade products.

These properties make cadmium yellow pigments unique. Being difficult to substitute, they are typically the materials of choice for ceramic, glass and metal decoration, plastic colouration and for the professional artist including restoration work.


Cadmium yellow pigments find niche applications in market segments where their unique blend of properties of clean colour shade, intensity, opacity, heat and light resistance and long-term stability are paramount.


Cadmium yellow pigments have inherent high temperature resistance because of their method of manufacture and may therefore be used routinely in polymers which are processed at or above 300ºC e.g. polycarbonate, nylons and PTFE. Further, because of this high temperature resistance, all moulding sprues and off-cuts can be recycled whereas an organic may already be starting to undergo decomposition during moulding and be unable to withstand further heating.

This article comes from cadmium edit released