Requirements for Enamel Frits

An enamel frit must soften and adhere to the substrate without damaging it. This requires a relatively low softening temperature, typically ranging from 1,050-1,500°F (565-815°C). A decorated ceramic object might fire at 1,500°F, while thin-stemmed glasses might deform at 1,100°F. Clearly the same frit will not work equally well in both cases.

Once softened, the frit particles should flow together to eliminate porosity and form a coherent glass layer. In addition to the softening temperature, this overall firing behavior is related to the viscosity and surface tension, both of which vary with temperature. The glass frit should not soften too much before the organic medium is burned away, or combustion gases or partially burned medium can damage or become trapped in the glass layer. Escaping gases can disrupt the decoration and its bond to the substrate, causing pinholes or flaking. Carbon or bubbles trapped in the glass can result in unwanted light scattering or discoloration that will alter the color and gloss. Optimal appearance requires first removing the volatile medium and then allowing the frit to soften and flow sufficiently to obtain a coherent, pore- and defect-free glass layer with a smooth surface.

The enamel frit and substrate must be thermally compatible, meaning that once they are bonded during firing and start to cool down, their TEC must match sufficiently to avoid excessive stresses, or the decoration could crack or peel; the substrate could even fracture. Pigment type and amount can influence the enamel frit TEC, but the glass frit plays the dominant role. Most enamels have a slightly higher TEC than the substrate, so that on cooling a residual tension and compression exists in the enamel frit and the substrate, respectively. Type I borosilicate glass TEC is around 3.3 x 10-6/°C, while a soda lime silica container TEC is about 9.0 x 10-6/°C, so the same frit is unlikely to work well for both substrates. Ceramic products from different manufacturers can have significantly different TEC values. This can lead to quality issues when decorating blended lots from multiple sources, so it is recommended to run compatibility tests whenever possible when lots or sources are changed.

Decorating enamels are often used because of their mechanical and chemical durability, properties largely dependent on these same characteristics for the glass frit. Within a glass family, hardness and chemical durability generally decrease as the softening temperature is decreased. The common desire to lower firing temperature or reduce firing time pushes decorators to use lower temperature enamels or to slightly under-fire their current enamel frit. Either approach can reduce the mechanical and chemical durability. This can happen if the decoration and substrate are poorly matched, particularly if cracks are present. Cracks or poorly bonded areas increase the probability of damage from chemical attack or mechanical stresses.

Note that “chemical durability” is a somewhat generic term, and that durability for a decoration can vary widely under different conditions (e.g., acids, bases, temperature cycles, etc.). Standard testing methods, where samples have been generated under conditions simulating production firing, are recommended in order to make relative comparisons between candidate enamels.

This article comes from ceramicindustry edit released

Porcelain Powder 325-Mesh

This is a fine grade of 325 mesh the correct fineness for cold casting. Porcelain powder or other stone-based powders are added to polyester resin, polyurethane resin, epoxy, gypsum cement or other binders. Small objects are cast and cured in suitable molds. To conserve powderl when casting large pieces you can dust (salt) the mold surface, brush a thin coating on the surface, spread or roll the metal on or spray a thin coating. The mold is then back-filled with resin or fiberglass, iron or steel shot, sand or calcium carbonate to increase the weight to give it the heft and feel of a hot foundry ‘pour.’

You can also lighten the piece by added hollow glass beads to your back up casting mix. After curing and removal from the mold the object must be gently abraded or burnished with fine steel wool (triple 0 grade), a pad, or sand blasted to remove the microscopic film of binder from the surface of the porcelain powder particles.

The object will have the authentic look and feel of a true porcelain powder. That is because the surface is now true porcelain powder.

This article comes from artmolds edit released

How To Torch Fire Enamel

Teaching yourself how to torch fire enamel? Don’t worry, it’s not as difficult as it may seem. Although it can be an intimidating project at first glance, torch enamelling is a simple way of creating varied finishes that will stand out, and help you to refine your torch firing techniques. Use our step–by-step-guide below on how to torch fire enamel, and you’ll be creating unique designs in no time at all.

Completely new to enamelling? Enamelling refers to the technique used to coat a surface of metal with enamel. The enamel is a coating of melted glass that, once heated, will fuse to the metal surface leaving you with a professional finish in a colour and effect of your choice. Most enamels come in powder form, and when heated and fused to the metal you’re working with, will transform into a unique glass coating.

This article comes from cooksongold edit released

cobalt blue vs royal blue

Blue is a color that has become the favorite of a lot of people all around the world. The color is immensely popular because it is often associated with calmness and equanimity, depth and stability, as well as intelligence and wisdom. It is universally accepted as the color of the sea and sky; both often become the objects that soothe our mind.

There is a very wide range of blue, from the lightest, whitish tint, to the darkest, almost black hue. However, cobalt blue and royal blue are perhaps the most popular ones when it comes to clothing. Below, you can find the comparisons between royal blue and cobalt blue.

Royal blue is the color that often arises debates. That is due to the fact that royal blue may refer to both the darker and brighter shades of azure blue. Traditionally, it was invented as a deep, dark blue with a faint purple or reddish tinge, crafted by millers in Somerset to win the dress-making competition for the British queen, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. However, in the 1950s, people began to consider royal blue as a brighter color, and this brighter shade is the one chosen as the web color. Today, royal blue clothing may come as the darker or the lighter variants.

On the other hand, cobalt blue is a blue pigment created by sintering at 1200-degree Celcius cobalt(II) oxide with alumina. It appears bright and medium, neither too dark not too light. Quite interestingly, it is lighter than the traditional royal blue, but slightly darker than the web color of royal blue. It has, however, distinctive superior brilliance and contrast.


So, royal blue is the intense azure blue that can be either darker or lighter, representing more maturity and royalty than cobalt blue. It is the color if you want to appear elegant. On the other hand, cobalt blue has a somehow more cheerful impression, best if you want to appear younger.

This article comes from ilookwar edit released

Can You Name All The Blue Hues, Shades, Tints, Tones And Other Variations?

Can You Name All The Blue Hues, Shades, Tints, Tones And Other Variations?

There are hundreds of blue shades and we have many examples of a certain color name assigned to different HEX codes. On the other hand several blue colors are known under more than one name. We’ll try to present as many blue tints and hues as possible in slightly different arrangement as you might expect. Each color carries its own story and this article is touching dozens of them.

Royal cobalt blue For Trust And Authority

Royal cobalt blue is used to express and emphasize authority for many centuries. It is no coincidence police uniforms are so often blue or mainly of blue color. Its effect on human psychology is in most cases calming and ancient culture associated it heaven and gods. The reason is obvious: while royal cobalt blue is not so widespread in nature as some other colors, it dominates sky and water, two major elements in nature, both closely associated with divinity.

When King of England (George III) needed color with strong impact to immediately express royalty, several clothiers across the country tried to develop the right color and shade. Ultimately Scutts Bridge Mill won the contest. Queen Charlotte wore the robe in this color, what gave the color an alternative name Queen Blue.

With addition of white or black we can instantly create dozens of shades and tints for the same color and with different processes of production and addition of some red or yellow inevitably followed. Especially addition of red led to dramatic changes, what can be seen at royal purple above. It’s actually pretty interesting to find out how many ways are to make color royal cobalt blue, which is szpposed to be a so-called basic or primary color.

Around 1950 another, lighter shade of royal cobalt blue became known as royal and with an introduction of computer graphics (plus numerous limitations, which were gradually changed) and so called web safe colors, we got almost more than we can handle. Simply naming colors with numbers seemed a practical idea, yet it doesn’t guarantee the standardization.

This article comes from drawingblog edit released

Manufacturing Techniques of Porcelain Enamel

There are two major groups of standard process steps used in manufacturing porcelain enamel materials:

Surface preparation is for removal of soil, oil, corrosion and similar dirt from the basis material. The clean surface allows the porcelain enamel to bond well with the basis material.

Coating, including ball milling and enamel application. Ball milling is performed to mix and grind frit and other raw materials, forming an enamel slip of appropriate consistency for a particular application.

This article comes from epa edit released

EPiC Industrial Enamel

High Gloss Enamel Surface Coating

Industrial Enamel is a modified single pack urethane enamel made in a high gloss finish. It can be applied to a variety of surfaces including Concrete, Timber and Metal Surfaces that have been primed with a suitable Metal Primer. EPiC Industrial Enamel is for interior use only.


EPiC Industrial Enamel has excellent durability for a single pack coating. It has very good corrosive and abrasive properties. It is hard wearing when cured and has excellent Gloss and Colour retention.

Suitable Substrates

  • Concrete
  • Stainless Steel
  • Blasted Steel
  • Mild Steel
  • Aluminium
  • Galvanised Iron
  • Timber

This article comes from nutechpaint edit released

Efcolor cold enamel coating

Efcolor enamel powders are fired at just 150ºC, so there is no need for a specialist kiln. They can be baked in your home oven, or use the specially designed Efcolor Tea Light Stove (If you have a fan assisted oven you might need to check where you place your pieces, so that the fan doesn’t blow the powder off before it has had a chance to set).

Efcolor enamel coating can be used on a wide range of surfaces inlcuding wood, porcelain, glass, silver, copper, bronze, brass, stone, ceramic or any other surface that can be fired at 150ºC… including our great range of copper blanks which can be found here.

You can get some great effects by sifting through stencils or shapes, or by adding elements to the powder and then baking in place. We recommend you get a sifter/sieve top to make it easier to spread the colour over your surface.

This article comes from metalclay edit released

Water Use of Porcelain Enamel

The cleaning processes for removing oil and dirt employ water based alkaline cleaners. Acid pickling solutions are used to remove oxides and corrosion and to etch the surface of the workpiece. Water is also used to rinse the basis material after it has been cleaned by the above listed processes.

A water solution of nickel salts is used in nickel flash operations in the steel subcategory.

The ball milling operation uses water for washing out the ball mills between mixing batches and for cooling the ball mills. During application of the porcelain enamel slip, water may be used as a curtain device for entrapping waste slip from overspray.

The characteristics of the wastewater generated by a porcelain enameling facility may vary depending on basis material cleaning and coating.

This article comes from epa edit released