Spotlight on cadmium red

Think of the colour red and most likely you will find yourself thinking of the big emotions and that is why artists like it so much. Red is an extremely dominant colour and even a small piece in a painting will catch your attention. It is the colour most often associated with powerful feelings such as love, passion and anger as well as heat, fire and blood. Cadmium red is a very strong, warm and opaque red and in the early part of the 20th century became a natural replacement for the distinctive but toxic vermilion.

Cadmiums have the broadest range of hues derived from any of the inorganic pigment groups. These hues range from pale to golden deep yellows, light fiery to deep oranges through to light bright scarlets to deep reds and maroons.

Moving Into The Red

It was some time after the introduction of cadmium yellow that cadmium red began to appear. The early reds were made by heating the cadmium yellow together with selenium. In 1919 a patent was registered for the production of cadmium orange and cadmium red. The method for this production was to mix cadmium salt solutions with alkali and alkaline earth sulphides and, in turn, to heat the resultant precipitate. For those of us who might not have been paying attention in our chemistry lessons: a precipitate is the solid material or collection of particles that is left in a solution after a chemical reaction and, not surprisingly, the process itself is called precipitation.

Advanced Production Techniques

The production of modern, high performance cadmium red is an expensive and lengthy process requiring only the purest raw materials to produce the best possible colour.

Transforming the cadmium metal into a usable pigment means it undergoes several carefully controlled chemical reactions and procedures using various ingredients including mineral acids, sodium sulphide flakes, water, and selenium. Towards the end of the process heating takes place to create the pigment and it is in this heating process that the quality and hue of the final pigment begins to form. The emerging pigment is then ground down into tiny particles – these grinding processes affect the way the pigment interacts with light. Fine particles have a good diffused reflection and produce a colour that is very strong and vibrant.


Cadmium itself is a heavy metal and is toxic but cadmium pigments are not classified as dangerous for use in line with EC classification. The level of soluble cadmium in the pigments is so low that no hazard warnings are needed and they pose no greater risk after swallowing or breathing in than other pigment types. Cadmium pigments are restricted for certain applications but this restriction does not apply to artists’ colours.

Go Red

Cadmium red will add brightness, strength, opacity and maybe a touch of passion to any artist’s work and is now widely regarded as a viable alternative to the erratic and toxic vermilion either natural or synthesised. Available from Winsor & Newton Artists’ Oil Colour: Cadmium Red and Cadmium Red Deep.

This article comes from winsornewton edit released

The Application of Enamel Material in the Jewelry Industry

Enamel material jewelry is carefully manufactured using glaze and gold, silver, copper and other precious metals. The processing technologies refer to multidisciplinary knowledge, such as painting, engraving, padding, inlaying, metallurgy and glass melting.

The history of enamel material was reviewed and the current challenges of enamel material jewelry industry were investigated. The key challenges of the enamel material jewelry industry are listed as follows: the counterfeit products dominate the enamel material market, high performance enamel material glaze is currently unviable, the industry standards have not been proposed, and the manufacturing technique is too complicated to be implemented by machine at this stage.

This article comes from scientific edit released

Porcelain Enamel Powder Vs Powder Coat

Spring is lurking just around the corner and you’re getting the itch. Not the allergy kind. It’s more of the itch to give your home a fresh look. And two of the most powerful options at your disposal, even if you’re not an avid DIYer, are color and lighting. So let’s breathe some new life into one of the most used rooms in the house — the kitchen.

Perhaps you’ve grown tired of builder beige on the walls. Bring home some of those sample bottles of paint and splash it around. Be bold! Try something new! Live with it for a week and see how the colors look at different times of the day. With minimal investment, you might just find the perfect shade!

Next, think about replacing those kitchen pendants that your contractor spent a solid 30 seconds thinking about at the big box store. When it comes to lighting, you have many choices but one of the first things you should consider is the finish.

One of the most popular finishes available today is porcelain enamel powder
coating. Powder coating is a dry powder that is applied most often to metals. We apply porcelain enamel powder
coating to an aluminum alloy of a thicker grade than you will find at most retail outlets.

We also prep our aluminum by hand with denatured alcohol which allows the porcelain enamel powder
coat to adhere better. This durable finish comes in more than a dozen different colors ranging from traditional hues of Black, Galvanized, and Rust to more brilliant shades of Barn Red, Buttery Yellow, and Royal Blue so you’re sure to find the right shade to fit your décor.

A second finish option is porcelain enamel powder
which was an industry standard back in the early 20th century. When RLM warehouse shades became the fixture of choice over bare bulb lighting in factories and warehouses, porcelain enamel powder
was used because of its ability to withstand high heat, chemicals, and even outdoor elements. Our porcelain enamel powder
shades are hand-spun from commercial grade steel, then three coats of porcelain enamel powder
glass are also hand applied. The shades are baked in a special oven where temperatures reach up to 1,600 degrees to seal the glass to the steel resulting in a high-gloss finish.

This article comes from barnlightelectric edit released

Porcelain Enameling Services

Porcelain enameling services on cast iron, steel & stainless steel component parts & products. Porcelain coating features color permanence, gloss characteristics, cleanability, thermal properties, weather, acid, chemical, abrasion, impact & wear resistance, flexibility & thermal conductivity. Porcelain can be applied in a wide range of thickness, colors, various gloss characteristics & finishes & degrees of smoothness including smooth, pebbly & stippled surfaces. Capabilities include developing correct formulations for specific applications & coating any shape or size product in large & small quantity volumes.

Porcelain enameling services for metals. Suitable for large sizes, quantities and odd-shaped configurations. Additional capabilities include high temperature painting, dip coating, powder coating, wet painting, media blasting and etching, raw casting grinding, detailing, substrate profiling, cleaning and inspection.

ISO 9001:2000 & ISO/TS 16949:2002 certified porcelain enameling services. Porcelain enameling surface finishes are long lasting, scratch & abrasion resistant, high-low gloss, easy to clean, resistant to odor & bacteria, available in many colors with color matching available, & environmentally friendly. Porcelain enameling increases maximum heating temperature of metal & strong adhesion properties keeps exposed edges from flaking. When applied to steel or aluminum substrates, porcelain enameling allows for less expensive replacement metal.

This article comes from thomasnet edit released

Uses of Cadmium Red pigment

Most cadmium red pigments are used in plastics. These pigments disperse well in most polymers to give high opacity and tinting strength. The pigments are insoluble in organic solvents, have good resistance to alkalis and in most cases will remain lightfast for the life of the plastic. As a result, cadmium red pigments have been used in a wide range of plastic products.

Nowadays, their greatest application is in complex polymers which are processed at higher temperatures and require the unique durability and technical performance of a cadmium red pigment. Their use is almost mandatory in many nylon, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polycarbonates, high density polyethylene, silicone resins and other modern thermoplastic polymers processed at high temperatures which preclude the use of organic pigments and also most alternative inorganic pigments in the range of hues provided by cadmium. Cadmium pigmented engineering polymers such as ABS are widely used in products which include telephones, gas pipes and fittings, electricity cables, beverage crates and motor vehicle radiator fans.

Bright cadmium yellows, oranges and reds are major pigments for artists’ colors where their permanence and opacity are the accepted standards against which other pigments are judged. Cadmium yellows and reds can have service temperatures well above 300 °C and are used in coatings for process chemical and steam pipes. They can also be incorporated in latex and acrylic coatings.

This article comes from naturalpigments edit released

Ceramit Low Temperature Enamel Individual Colors Refills

Ceramit is a remarkably versatile decorative low temperature enamel which cures to a surface virtually equivalent to hard fired low temperature enamel. Cermitation features rich, warm colors which can also be mixed to create unique colors and shades. May be applied to any porous surface not affected by the heat of the curing cycle: metal, ceramic, porcelain, glass, rock, plastic and more. Cures to a hardness of 60 to 75 on the SWARD scale (kiln fired low temperature enamel is 65-80) in just 30-45 minutes at a maximum temperature of 250°F (120°C). Temperature controlled ovens, infrared lamps and portable electric heaters can be used for curing.

  • Non-conductive. Surfaces enameled with Ceramitation may be electroplated without affecting the color or finish
  • Can cure at room temperature
  • 2 oz bottle of opaque, fluorescent, metallic and transparent colors available

This article comes from esslinger edit released

What Is Emissivity In Thermal Imaging cameras?

To read correct temperatures, another important factor needs to be taken into account. That is a factor known as emissivity.

Emissivity is the efficiency, which an object emits infrared radiation and is highly dependent on properties of the material or object. It is a measure of the efficiency of a surface to emit thermal imaging cameras energy relative to a perfect black body source. It directly scales the intensity of the thermal imaging cameras emission and all real values are less than 1.0.

The emissivity may be highly dependent on the surface morphology, roughness, oxidation, spectral wavelength, temperature and view angle. A measurement that does not account for the real emissivity of a surface will appear “colder” than it actually is.

For agricultural applications, many organic materials and materials with very rough surfaces have emissivity values approaching 1.0. For other applications, including power line and solar cell inspection, the surface might be a highly polished glass or metal, both of which can have much lower emissivity values.

It is important for the thermal imaging cameras to be set to the correct emissivity or incorrect temperatures will be measured.

This article comes from dronezon edit released

Advantages of Porcelain Enamel Cookware


The first advantage of porcelain enamel cookware is its safety compared to teflon, cast iron and aluminium pots and pans; the teflon pans, indeed, scratch themselves after an intense use and release toxic chemical materials. Cast iron and aluminium pots, on the other hand, react with acid ingredients such as vinegar, lemon and egg yolks.

It is important to buy high quality porcelain enamel cookware, so that the coating remains always in good condition, without scratches and cracks, also after an intense use.


In cooking, the enamel porcelain kitchenware is ideal to prepare tasty dishes while, at the same time, helping you to stay in good shape; indeed, just a small amount of fat (butter, oil etc.) is needed to prevent food from sticking to the pan. If you are on a diet, consider buying some porcelain enamel pots that will help you to reduce cooking fats and oils!

Cooks omogeneously

Furthermore porcelain tends to distribute homogeneously the heat, allowing you to cook rapidly and efficiently. This will benefit the quality of the food you eat, by making it tender and uniformly cooked while preserving its organoleptic properties. As a result, porcelain enamel cookware is ideal for preparing meat and fish dishes.


Chefs use porcelain enamel to cook a wide variety of different foods because, unlike most of the nonstick cookware, it can go both in the oven and in the microwave. Imagine using your porcelain enamel casserole to prepare a delicious truffle lasagna, or your enamel pot to cook creamy soups and sauces.

Easy cleaning

Another advantage of the porcelain enamel cookware is that it is easy to clean: you just need a quick wipe with a dish sponge & detergent to clean it fast and properly! The advantage is twofold: on one hand, you will be able to use less detergent and thus avoid polluting the environment; on the other hand, using less hot water will allow you to save precious money on your bills.


A porcelain enamel pot does cost more than other nonstick pots like those in aluminium or teflon, but unlike them it is an heirloom piece that you can pass on to your sons and daughters.

This article comes from dishesonly edit released

New purple-blue ceramic pigments based on CoZr4(PO4)6

Due to the outstanding stability and resistivity to dissolution agents of the compounds related to NaZr2(PO4)3 (NZP family), our attention has been focussed on CoZr4(PO4)6 and its performance as an inorganic ceramic pigment for coloration of ceramic glazes. Mixed cobalt zirconium phosphate has been prepared by a solid state reaction and a sol–gel method and was characterised (through thermal analysis, XRD, heating microscopy, SEM, VIS-spectrophotometry and lightfastness measurement) for the first time as a ceramic pigment. In order to reduce the cobalt content in the samples the series of Co1−xMgxZr4(PO4)6 (x = 0.25; 0.5) have also been prepared using a solid state reaction and were investigated with the same techniques.

It was shown that a solid state reaction provides the formation of CoZr4(PO4)6 through a three component system stage (ZrP2O7, ZrO2 and CoP2O6/Co2P2O7), when employment of the sol–gel method leads to the direct formation of a CoZr4(PO4)6 phase at lower temperatures. During further thermal treatment, with an increase of the calcination temperature up to 1200–1300 °C, an additional phase of Zr2O(PO4)2 appears in the composition. A solid state reaction can be suggested as a preferable method for achieving enhanced thermal stability of this phosphate and the substitution of Co by Mg not only helps to reduce the content of Co in the sample compositions, but also to improve their thermal characteristics.

Thus, the obtained results indicate that employment of the more complicated sol–gel method does not provide any advantages at high calcination temperatures with respect to the phase composition, thermal stability, homogeneity and particle size distribution of the obtained samples and the conventional ceramic route does not deteriorate on the basis of these parameters. An irregular change of the colour parameters was observed for the samples during the calcination and the temperature of 1300 °C and 6–12 h of soaking time were chosen for ceramic pigment synthesis. Colouring ability of the obtained samples has been analysed with two types of ceramic glazes. The mixed phosphates exhibit saturated purple-blue colour, which becomes lighter only with an increase of Mg content to x = 0.5. Enamelled samples showed excellent lightfastness and the investigated compounds can be considered as high performance inorganic ceramic pigments for coloration of ceramic glazes.

This article comes from sciencedirect edit released

Porcelain Enamel Cookware: everything You Need to Know

20190108Nowadays porcelain enamel kitchenware makes a beautiful impression in kitchens all over the word. Porcelain enamel indeed seduces both food enthusiasts and design lovers because combines performance and aesthetics. But… which is the difference between porcelain and porcelain enamel?

As many of you may know, porcelain is a type of ceramic that is composed mostly of a white clay called kaolin with the addition of feldspars, quartz, steatite and other substances. The whole compound is cooked at 1300-1400 degrees. As well as clay and glass ceramics, porcelain may be glazed or not.

The porcelain enamel cookware is made by melting the porcelain together with a stronger metal component. That’s why the enamel porcelain is characterized by high hardness and low porosity. And that’s why porcelain enamel kitchenware is at once strong, durable and lightweight.

This article comes from dishesonly edit released