Porcelain Enamel Cookware: everything You Need to Know

20190108Nowadays porcelain enamel kitchenware makes a beautiful impression in kitchens all over the word. Porcelain enamel indeed seduces both food enthusiasts and design lovers because combines performance and aesthetics. But… which is the difference between porcelain and porcelain enamel?

As many of you may know, porcelain is a type of ceramic that is composed mostly of a white clay called kaolin with the addition of feldspars, quartz, steatite and other substances. The whole compound is cooked at 1300-1400 degrees. As well as clay and glass ceramics, porcelain may be glazed or not.

The porcelain enamel cookware is made by melting the porcelain together with a stronger metal component. That’s why the enamel porcelain is characterized by high hardness and low porosity. And that’s why porcelain enamel kitchenware is at once strong, durable and lightweight.

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Porcelain cover coat frits

Porcelain enamel is a glass of a particular chemical composition and physical nature determined for the surface protection of metal.

Enamel cover coat frit is a form of glass bonded to metal on a molecular level at high temperature.

This results in a typical and unique composite material of glass and metal, which combines the positive qualities of both materials.

Cover coat have good opacity and gloss with clean and fine surface, but they can’t be directly coated on the body metal, they require the matched ground cover coat frits. The firing temperature of cover coat frit is lower than that of ground cover coat frit.

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Vitreous Enamel Frit

Vitreous enamel frit frit is a traditional coating that has been used for generations, but remains a tough modern finish.

It has impressive qualities of resistance to physical damage, heat, corrosion, ultra-violet light and yet it is compatible with many metal substrates.

It is suited to the demands of hundreds of products and capable of being decorated by several processes.

We can supply vitreous enamel frit either as frit, or ground into powder, as individual frits or blended for specific uses.

These products are for professional application, and need a heat source in the region of 800’C to fuse the enamel frit onto the metal substrate.

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Reactive Ice Transparent Frit

Transparent frit provides a unique effect in fused art. The glass contains elements that react to the metal content in other colors, creating intriguing color shifts and halos around contrasting pieces.

Transparent frits are made from crushed, screened and magnetically cleaned Bullseye Fusible sheet glass. Use transparent frit for your pate de verre and glass casting projects, or add pizazz to your fusing and kiln-formed glass jewelry.

Packaged in a wide-mouth 5 lb. jar. Fully compatible 90 COE. All Bullseye Stringers, Frit and Confetti are mixable for quantity discount.

This article comes from delphiglass edit released

Cadmium Red Deep Pigment

Cadmium red deep pigment (PR108). Synthetic Inorganic pigment (Cadmium Sulphoselenide). Opaque. Good tinting strength. Excellent Lightfastness. Low oil absorption with slow drying rate. Suitable for all media except exterior. Used since early 20th Century.

Cadmium red deep pigment is cadmium zinc sulfoselenide (CdS, CdSe) produced by co-precipitating and calcining, at high temperature, a mixture of cadmium sulfide and selenide sulfide in varied ratios forming a partially crystalline structure with sometimes hexagonal or cubic forms. Cadmium pigments are the most durable yellow, orange and red inorganic pigments commercially available. They have excellent chemical and heat stability, and can be used in chemically aggressive environments and durable applications without color fade.

Cadmium sulfoselenide pigments were developed in response to the need for stable shades of cadmium orange to red colors. Cadmium and selenide salts are co-precipitated and then heated to 300 °C.

This article comes from naturalpigments edit released

The use of vitreous enamel coatings

Many reinforced concrete structures on Army installations represent critical assets that are vital to storing, maintaining and transporting vehicles and material needed to support the warfighter. Unfortunately reinforced concrete can have a short service life if the reinforcement steel in the concrete corrodes.

A series of new vitreous enamel coatings that contain hydraulically-reactive calcium silicates and aluminates have been developed to provide additional protection for the steel and to increase the service life of reinforced concrete structures. The new series of vitreous enamel coatings combine a layer of alkaline- resistant basecoat vitreous enamel
with an outer coating of vitreous enamel
that incorporates dicalcium silicate, tricalcium silicate and calcium aluminate and alumino-ferrite. The basecoat protects the steel while the calcium silicates in the outer layer hydrate when placed in fresh concrete and chemically bond to the surrounding concrete paste.

The bond strength between the concrete and steel is increased two to three times that developed with uncoated steel. The enamel over the steel produces durable corrosion protection. Tests with steel stay-in-place forms demonstrate the usefulness of the vitreous enamel coating steel.

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Finding the Best Choice of Porcelain Frit

Porcelain frit is a crucial component in decorating enamels, determining the firing behavior, appearance and in-service performance for the decoration.

Porcelain frit selection for particular application and firing conditions, as well as use environment, is an engineering compromise. The best choice must simultaneously optimize several properties that depend on the glass chemistry and structure in subtle and often opposing ways.

Decorators are encouraged to discuss their specific needs with their enamel supplier to reach the best solution, rather than assume that a general-formulation enamel will be able to do multiple jobs.

This article comes from ceramicindustry edit released

How to Paint Enamel on Metal?

20181031Enamel is one of the most durable paints available. Metal is one of the most durable materials available. Therefore, painting metal with enamel will result in a very durable object, regardless of what the object is. As long as you pay attention to the preparation of your metal before painting, you will end up with professional-looking results for very little money and time spent.

Sand or wire brush the metal object to remove any peeling paint, loose previous coating or rust spots.

Spray water from the sink or garden hose onto the metal object to thoroughly remove any sanding dust. Allow the metal object to dry.

Lay newspapers or a drop cloth carefully on an outdoor or garage work surface, as over spray from spray paint cannot be easily removed.

Apply the solvent or acid to the entire metal surface with the rag. Use a toothbrush to reach into crevices. The solvent will remove any oils or difficult debris to further prepare the surface of the metal. Allow the solvent to dry.

Spray a thin coat of primer onto the object. Be sure to use wide, sweeping strokes to prevent the primer from pooling and dripping. Spray paint comes out fast, so you may wish to practice your spray technique on a piece of cardboard first. Be sure to thoroughly coat the entire metal object with primer.

Allow the primer to dry for several hours or overnight.

Spray a thin coat of enamel onto the metal object, using the same technique you used with the primer.

Allow the enamel to dry overnight, and then add another coat of enamel. Allow to dry overnight again before using the metal object.

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Requirements for Enamel Frits

An enamel frit must soften and adhere to the substrate without damaging it. This requires a relatively low softening temperature, typically ranging from 1,050-1,500°F (565-815°C). A decorated ceramic object might fire at 1,500°F, while thin-stemmed glasses might deform at 1,100°F. Clearly the same frit will not work equally well in both cases.

Once softened, the frit particles should flow together to eliminate porosity and form a coherent glass layer. In addition to the softening temperature, this overall firing behavior is related to the viscosity and surface tension, both of which vary with temperature. The glass frit should not soften too much before the organic medium is burned away, or combustion gases or partially burned medium can damage or become trapped in the glass layer. Escaping gases can disrupt the decoration and its bond to the substrate, causing pinholes or flaking. Carbon or bubbles trapped in the glass can result in unwanted light scattering or discoloration that will alter the color and gloss. Optimal appearance requires first removing the volatile medium and then allowing the frit to soften and flow sufficiently to obtain a coherent, pore- and defect-free glass layer with a smooth surface.

The enamel frit and substrate must be thermally compatible, meaning that once they are bonded during firing and start to cool down, their TEC must match sufficiently to avoid excessive stresses, or the decoration could crack or peel; the substrate could even fracture. Pigment type and amount can influence the enamel frit TEC, but the glass frit plays the dominant role. Most enamels have a slightly higher TEC than the substrate, so that on cooling a residual tension and compression exists in the enamel frit and the substrate, respectively. Type I borosilicate glass TEC is around 3.3 x 10-6/°C, while a soda lime silica container TEC is about 9.0 x 10-6/°C, so the same frit is unlikely to work well for both substrates. Ceramic products from different manufacturers can have significantly different TEC values. This can lead to quality issues when decorating blended lots from multiple sources, so it is recommended to run compatibility tests whenever possible when lots or sources are changed.

Decorating enamels are often used because of their mechanical and chemical durability, properties largely dependent on these same characteristics for the glass frit. Within a glass family, hardness and chemical durability generally decrease as the softening temperature is decreased. The common desire to lower firing temperature or reduce firing time pushes decorators to use lower temperature enamels or to slightly under-fire their current enamel frit. Either approach can reduce the mechanical and chemical durability. This can happen if the decoration and substrate are poorly matched, particularly if cracks are present. Cracks or poorly bonded areas increase the probability of damage from chemical attack or mechanical stresses.

Note that “chemical durability” is a somewhat generic term, and that durability for a decoration can vary widely under different conditions (e.g., acids, bases, temperature cycles, etc.). Standard testing methods, where samples have been generated under conditions simulating production firing, are recommended in order to make relative comparisons between candidate enamels.

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Porcelain Powder 325-Mesh

This is a fine grade of 325 mesh the correct fineness for cold casting. Porcelain powder or other stone-based powders are added to polyester resin, polyurethane resin, epoxy, gypsum cement or other binders. Small objects are cast and cured in suitable molds. To conserve powderl when casting large pieces you can dust (salt) the mold surface, brush a thin coating on the surface, spread or roll the metal on or spray a thin coating. The mold is then back-filled with resin or fiberglass, iron or steel shot, sand or calcium carbonate to increase the weight to give it the heft and feel of a hot foundry ‘pour.’

You can also lighten the piece by added hollow glass beads to your back up casting mix. After curing and removal from the mold the object must be gently abraded or burnished with fine steel wool (triple 0 grade), a pad, or sand blasted to remove the microscopic film of binder from the surface of the porcelain powder particles.

The object will have the authentic look and feel of a true porcelain powder. That is because the surface is now true porcelain powder.

This article comes from artmolds edit released