Cobalt blue color palette sources identified in the production

The cobalt blue color palette enamel coating on 112 fragments or small objects of Qing Dynasty Chinese, 95 of underglaze blue and white and 17 overglaze enamelled porcelains.

The cobalt blue color palette enamel coating on both blue and white and polychrome objects were created with a cobalt pigment that was rich in manganese with lesser nickel and zinc. This suite of accessory elements is generally considered to be characteristic of local, Chinese, sources of pigments. However, the cobalt blue color palette enamels were very different. The cobalt pigment here has low levels of manganese and instead is rich in nickel, zinc, arsenic and bismuth. No Chinese source of cobalt with these characteristics is known, but they closely match the elements found in the contemporary cobalt source at Erzgebirge in Germany.

Textual evidence has been interpreted to suggest that some enamel pigment technologies were transferred from Europe to China, but this is the first analytical evidence to be found that an enamel pigment itself was imported. It is possible that this pigment was imported in the form of cobalt coloured glass, or smalt, which might account for its use in enamels, but not in an underglaze, where the colour might be susceptible to running.

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Enamel Powder Coating vs Spray Paint Stove Enamelling

Paint or powder, powder or stove enamel, powder vs spray paint, or powder coat vs air drying? Windridge Coatings is a commercial paint application company. In over 30 years we have applied heavy-duty corrosion protection paints, aesthetic auto paints, enamel powder coatings and stove enamel. We have a fairly good knowledge of all processes and have taken the commercial decision to specialise in enamel powder coating. Enamel powder coating has been the fastest growth area of painting for the last 25 years at the expense of other paint systems.

Enamel Powder Coating

Improvements in application techniques have meant small decorative items to heavy and large components are suitable for enamel powder coating. What was once the reserve for architectural and mass production is now available for garden gates and enamel powder coating motorbike frames.

Application equipment for enamel powder coating is more expensive than wet paint systems. The gun alone can cost £4500. The paint is purchased as a powder, hence the name. It is temporarily stuck to the metal with an electrostatic attraction. (In the same way as you rub a balloon on your jumper and watch it stick to a wall, the granules of powder stick to the work piece). The oven is more expensive than stove enamelling because it has to heat the component to a higher temperature, about 200 degrees Celsius.

Why is enamel powder coating better?

  • Powder coating done properly is tougher than stove enamelling and air drying paints. This means it will take more of punishment before chipping.
  • There are no solvents used during the application and so it is environmentally greener.
  • Requires factory processing making a better chance of the component being stripped and blasted, for better corrosion resistance and adhesion.
  • It produces a more waterproof barrier than liquid paint (for comparable thickness) and therefore offers better protection against corrosion.
  • To hide metal imperfections, a Powder coating finish can achieve in two coats, what stove enamelling requires in 15 or more coats.
  • Therefore the price is comparable, or even cheaper than stove enamelling.
  • Powder coating is more resistant to scratching and marking.
  • Good quality powder coatings are available in high gloss and have negligible orange peel.
  • Dirt is easily washed off.
  • Powder coating can be compounded, polished and waxed like any other paint.

This article comes from windridge edit released

What is industrial enamel paint used for?

Industrial Enamels are for industrial use and may be used on properly prepared and properly primed interior or exterior surfaces of wood, metal, masonry, plaster, and composition board. Recommended for use on floors and machinery.

People also ask, what is industrial enamel paint?

Industrial enamel is a medium oil/alkyd all-purpose enamel. Designed for industrial enamelinterior and exterior use. For use on properly prepared. Steel, Concrete, Wood, Plaster, Previously.

what is the difference between paint and industrial enamel? The difference between paint and industrial enamel is same as that between a car and a Ford as industrial enamel is a type of paint. Paint is mostly acrylic, water based or oil based. It is the oil based paints that have traditionally been referred to as industrial enamel though today one can get water based or even latex based industrial enamels in the market.

Subsequently, question is, what is enamel paint used for?

Industrial enamel paint is paint that air-dries to a hard, usually glossy, finish, used for coating surfaces that are outdoors or otherwise subject to hard wear or variations in temperature; it should not be confused with decorated objects in “painted enamel”, where vitreous enamel is applied with brushes and fired in a kiln.

Can we use industrial enamel paint on wall?

Industrial enamel (oil base) won’t adhere to latex and latex won’t adhere to industrial enamel. You’ll have to get a primer paint that will adhere to both paints. Prime coat the existing paint and then put on the finish paint. There’s no reason though to use industrial enamel for a wall paint.

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Glass Sunset Coral Transparent Frit

Transparent frits are made from crushed, screened, and magnetically cleaned compatible sheet glass.

Use transparent frit in frit tinting, kiln-casting and related techniques, or add decorative splashes of color in fusing projects. Fine grain transparent frit ranges in size from 0.2 to 1.2mm, medium grain frit ranges in size from 1.2 to 2.7mm, and coarse grain transparent frit ranges in size from 2.7 to 5.2mm. Extra large transparent frit, available in clear only, ranges in size from 5.2 to 30mm.

Transparent frit comes in reusable wide mouth jars.

Use of Porcelain Enamel Frit

Available in a variety of colors to harmonize or contrast with the vision area, the porcelain enamel frit is applied to the surface of the glass.

Porcelain enamel frits contain finely ground glass mixed with inorganic pigments to produce a desired color. The coated glass is then heated to about 1,150°F, fusing the frit to the glass surface, which produces a ceramic coating almost as hard and tough as the glass itself.

A fired porcelain enamel frit is durable and resists scratching, chipping, peeling, fading and chemical attacks.

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All the information on Cadmium Pigments

Cadmium pigments are stable, inorganic colouring agents which are produced in a range of rich, vibrant shades of yellow, orange, red, and maroon. Modern day pigments made by our member companies are carefully engineered products manufactured in regulated chemical plants with full Health and Safety and Environmental permits under Responsible Care management and adherence to guidance principles.

These cadmium pigments have a carefully defined and engineered particle size, crystal structure, surface area and surface treatment to ensure they are not only correct for colour but also meet extremely low solubility and other key property limits.

Cadmium Pigments have undergone EU Risk Assessments and are fully EU-REACH registered. These have concluded no risk to people or the environment and are specifically exempted in the Cd compounds entry 048-001-00-5 of Annex VI to CLP. They are classified as non-hazardous with no requirement for any hazard labelling.

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The Differences Between Hard-Anodized & Porcelain Enamel

Walk in to any kitchen supply store, and the shine from all the glistening pots and pans may make you reach for your sunglasses. Your senses are immediately assaulted: all the cookware claims to be the newest and best thing to hit the market.

No-stick, non-stick, stick-resistant, a little stick — who can you believe, and how can you determine what shiny or brightly colored saucepan is the right one for you? Two terms jousting for the title of “best cookware” are hard anodized and hard enamel cookware made of porcelain. Distinguishing between the two isn’t difficult if you know how to wend your way through the language of surfaces on pots and pans.

Building a Better Model

Realizing the weaknesses in aluminum cookware, but aiming to maintain the high conductivity of the element, scientists at Calphalon created hard-anodized aluminum cookware in the 1960s. Through an electro-chemical process, they fused the aluminum in an acid bath jolted with an electrical current, resulting in an oxide blend that had greater resistance than the original aluminum. The process also created a lovely gray coloring, and the scientists noticed that food was less apt to stick than with the original aluminum.

Porcelain Hard Enamel Cookware

Porcelain, a combination of kaolin clay and glass fired at extremely high temperatures, was first fired onto iron in the 1800s, creating a pot lining that eliminated the leaching of iron into food. Through the years, aluminum and stainless steel have also been fused with porcelain, making a hard porcelain enamel product that adds to the myriad of cookware choices.

Benefits of Hard-Anodized Cookware

Touch a hard-anodized pot to realize its strength. The smooth cooking surface is stick-resistant, and its solid surface won’t corrode, leach or suffer abrasions. If satellites in the sky can depend on the strength of hard-anodized parts to protect them from the rigors of space, then a mere saucepan is sure to have a long life. Hard-anodized cookware also has excellent heat conduction and cleans safely.

Hard-anodized saucepans are safe at high temperatures, making them ideal for stovetop-to-oven cooking. Just be sure to use potholders when removing the cookware from the oven.

Porcelain Enamel Pros

The high-temperature firing of porcelain onto iron has driven the cookware market for over a century. The process was then expanded to include stainless steel and aluminum. The porcelain isn’t a coating over a base metal, but a fusion of the two. The rock-hard surface is resistant to scratching and peeling. While aluminum and stainless steel porcelain enamels are lighter second cousins to cast iron in the realm of cookware, it’s the heft of the iron that gives porcelain enamel its edge with serious cooks. Aluminum porcelain enamel doesn’t leach, making it a safer choice than unfused aluminum.

Disadvantages of Porcelain Enamel Cookware

Disadvantages of porcelain enamel cookware include the enamel color turning darker with heavy use. This, however, does not affect the cooking qualities of the pot; instead, it simply indicates years of use.

A Sticky Subject

Hard anodization of aluminum not only creates a smooth surface; the result of the fusion process is that the base aluminum becomes non-porous. Food adheres when first put into the pan, but as it nears doneness, it’s released from its bond. Hard-anodized cookware is stick-resistant.

Porcelain enamel over iron, aluminum or stainless steel is non-stick. Bits may be left behind, especially during high-heat cooking, but they scrape off with little effort. A good soak in warm water rinses away any residue without effort.

Safe Cooking Considerations

Both hard-anodized aluminum cookware and porcelain-fused enamel are considered safe. The biggest concern is leaching from the base metal to the food, and if chips in the porcelain are avoided, they are not dangerous. The FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition has deemed enamel-coated cookware safe, including products that are imported.

A Beauty Contest

Hard-anodized aluminum cookware is one color: gray. That’s the result of the oxidation that takes place during the chemical fusion process. Porcelain enamel over a base metal are manufactured in a riot of colors, which makes them ideal additions to well-decorated kitchens. Many cooks tend to collect porcelain enamel cookware in one color and display them as accessories instead of hiding them in cupboards.

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Natural Pigments – Chromium Oxide Green

Chromium oxide green aqueous pigment dispersion, also known as chromium sesquioxide or chromia, is one of four oxides of chromium. It is commonly called chrome green when used as a pigment; however it was referred to as viridian when it was first discovered.

Origin and History

The element chromium was found in lead chromate in 1797 by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin. The name chromium was given to the element because so many colored compounds can be produced from it. As early as 1809, chromium oxide was green being used as an enamel in porcelain factories, but it was not yet used as a painting pigment. It has been written by several sources that chromium oxide green was not used as a pigment until 1862, but there is evidence to suggest that it was used earlier. The pigment has been identified on a J.M.W. Turner painting which dates back to 1812. An 1815 journal entry by George Field included a homemade example of the pigment, and in 1831 Vergnaud discussed two different preparation methods, but said that the pigment was not widely used because of its high price. A catalogue of pigments printed around 1840 lists a green oxide of chromium, which is believed to be chromium oxide green. Also, in 1969 Kühn, using microscopy and emission spectroscopy, found chromium oxide green in three paintings which dated between 1845 and 1850. It is widely accepted that chromium oxide green was used before the hydrated version. Their use has been limited, though, since these greens are much more expensive than the emerald greens or chrome greens, due to the preparation process. It is sometimes used to make lightfast paints when mixed with yellows. In the past it was used in automotive finishes and to make bank notes.


The first man to prepare chromium oxide was Pannetier in Paris, but his process was kept hidden. Guignet invented a two-step process for preparing the chemical. His first step was to heat boric acid and potassium bichromate, a process known as calcining, which produced a porous mass. The second step produces hydrated oxide, boric acid, and some boron, after the mass is washed in cold water, or hydrolyzed. This is only one way of several for the preparation of chromium oxide green. There is no specific chemical composition for hydrated chromium oxide green since different preparation processes produce the chemical with boron, while other processes produce the chemical without boron.

Permanence and Compatibility

Hydrated chromium oxide green is permanent, but chromium oxide green is more stable and is one of the most permanent pigments an artist uses. It will not react with hydrochloric acid or with sodium hydroxide.

Oil Absorption and Grinding

Chromium oxide green absorbs a small amount of oil (26 g oil per 100 g of pigment).

This article comes from naturalpigments edit released


Enamel powder coating is a protective and decorative finish

The advanced method of applying enamel powder coating is used for both protective and decorative finishes to any metal which is used by consumers and industry.

The process uses a powder which consists of resin and fine pigment particles, electrostatically sprayed on the metal surface. This allows the powder particles to become charged and adhere to the metal surface while being electrically grounded, until the powder has heated up and smoothly fused with the metal in a curing oven. This provides a durable, uniform, attractive and high-quality finish.

Advantages & Benefits Of Enamel Powder Coating

In North America, the enamel powder coating process is a fast growing technology for adding finishes to products. It accounts for more than 10% of all industrial based finishing applications.

Advantage – Enamel Powder Coating Is Durable

Enamel powder coating provides businesses, consumers, and industries a long-lasting, economical, and durable finish with a range of color options available for nearly any type of metal.

Also, a powder coated surface will be more resistant against scratches, chipping, wear, and fading compared to other type of finishes. You can choose from an almost unlimited selection of colors, including, glossy, high-gloss, flat, fluorescent, candies, clear, hammer toned, iridescent, glitter and wrinkle.

The colors will remain vibrant and bright much longer than other finishes too. The selection of textures range between a smooth surface to matte or wrinkled finishes.

Advantage – Protecting the Environment

Not only does enamel powder coating provide great finish, it is better on the environment. Liquid painting finishes that consists of solvents are known to be pollutants of volatile organic compounds. VOC’s wreak havoc on the air we breath – nobody wants that!

What’s awesome about enamel powder coating is that it does not contain any solvents! It only releases very negligible amounts of VOC’s, if any within the atmosphere. This means that finishers no longer have a need of purchasing and maintaining expensive equipment for pollution control.

Advantage – Powder Coat to Save Money

Eliminating VOC’s and reducing waste saves money in the long term. Companies remain in compliance with U.S. Department of Environmental Protection Agency regulations.

The customer reaps huge benefits in money costs because the finish lasts so much longer vs. other metal finish methods. Enamel powder coating has many advantages.

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What is Vitreous Enamel Material?

Vitreous enamel material is simply a thin layer of glass fused at high temperature on to the surface of a metal.

The formal definition is : Vitreous enamel material can be defined as a material which is a vitreous solid obtained by smelting or fritting a mixture of inorganic materials.

The Collins English Dictionary defines enamel as “a coloured glassy substance, transparent or opaque, fused to the surface of articles made of metal, glass etc. for ornament or protection.” Vitreous enamel material is specifically on a metal base. It is thus defined as a vitreous, glass-like coating fused on to a metallic base.

It should not be confused with paint, which is sometimes called ‘enamel’. Paints cannot be vitreous enamel material. They do not have the hardness, heat resistance and colour stability that is only available with real vitreous enamel material. Beware of companies or products implying the use of enamel material. Check their credentials and warranties.

Vitreous enamel material is part of everyday life and found all around us. You will use it on many kitchen surfaces including cookers, saucepans and washing machine drums. You will find enamelled cast iron or steel baths and clock and watch faces. Out of doors, we use enamel material for street signs, Underground station signs, architectural panels, storage and treatment tanks and many other places. It is selected because it is weatherproof, vandal resistant, fireproof and because it lasts and lasts and lasts. Titanic’s Captain Smith’s enamelled bathtub has survived very well under the sea.

Enamel material is also used by artists and in jewellery, famously in Russia’s Fabergé eggs. Decorative enamelling was the first use of the process of enamelling, dating back to the 13th century BC. This type of enamel material is usually applied to copper and its alloys and to gold and silver. We make Vitreous Enamel material by smelting naturally occurring minerals, such as sand, feldspar, borax, soda ash, and sodium fluoride at temperatures between 1200 °C and 1350 °C until all of the raw materials have dissolved. Other metallic mineral may be added to give specific properties or colour. The molten glass which is formed is either quenched into water or through water-cooled rollers. This rapid cooling prevents crystallisation and is said to be in a metastable state. This material is called “frit”. To make a usable enamel the frit will be ground in a rotating ball mill either to produce a water-based slurry or a powder. Clays are used in the water-based products to give a product which can be applied to the metal by spraying, dipping or painting by brush. At the milling stage, other minerals will be added to give the properties which are required of the final enamel. Colour is introduced by the use of metal compounds. The recognisable blue enamel is produced using cobalt. Powdered enamels are applied by dusting or using electrostatic equipment. The final glassy finish so typical of vitreous enamel is produced by firing in furnaces at temperatures up to 900 °C. As it cools, it fuses to give glass-coated metal. This ‘firing’ process gives vitreous enamel material its unique combination of properties. The smooth glass-like surface is hard; it is scratch, chemical and fire resistant. It is easy to clean and hygienic. It all started 3500 years ago in Cyprus. Since 1500 BC, enamelling has been a wonderful, durable, attractive and reliable material. You will recognise it as the material used to produce the now highly collectable advertising signs produced during the early 20th Century.

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