Enamel Material Applications and Preparation

For more than two thousand years, goldsmiths have fused glass onto their work for color enrichment. Wonderful enamel material work can be found from many ancient cultures, providing familiar icons of the technical skill and aesthetic sensibilities of their makers.

In our own century enamel material has benefited from scientific and industrial research and because of this it has grown from being just one element of the goldsmith’s art to a position of prominence on its own.

One need only think of enamel material housewares, architectural trim and utilitarian objects to understand the importance of enamel material in our society.

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What Exactly Is Black Oxide Coating And What Does It Do?

Black oxide coating is the process of coating ferrous materials, stainless steel, copper, copper based alloys, zinc, materials with a chemical coating process. It takes products, and it coats them in iron oxide. This provides many benefits.

First, it reduces light reflection. This is beneficial because for products such as IR sensors, UV sensors, passive infrared detectors, etc. excess or reflected light can completely alter the results. Also, black oxide coating is beneficial because it adds thickness to steel, even though it’s microscopic, it helps maintain the sharpness of things like drills or screwdrivers.

Also, it helps reduce corrosion and friction due to the oil or wax present. The wax or oil also allows for the material to be water resistant.

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Porcelain Enamel Help and Information

What is porcelain enamel?

In general terms, vitreous enamel, porcelain enamel, copper enamel and jewelry enamel all refer to the same thing. Porcelain enamel is a glassy compound applied to and bonded by heat (fusion) to a metal surface; to a copper surface at 1450 degrees F., and to a glass surface at 1100 degrees F. to 1500 degrees F.

The most common glass is a fusion of silica, soda, lime, and a small amount of borax. Though normally transparent, various amounts of opacity can be produced by adding or growing crystals within the glass structure. A wide range of colors are produced by incorporating certain elements, mostly transition metals.

The physical properties of glass can be controlled to permit bonding to most metals, for example, gold, platinum, silver, copper, steel, cast iron and titanium.

The word ‘porcelain enamel’ refers to the glass material as well as to the finished product.

How is it done?

Porcelain enamel (glass) is crushed to a powder somewhat finer than granulated sugar and somewhat coarser than flour. This powder is applied, by one of several methods, to the metal or glass surface. Next the article is heated to 1100 to 1500 degrees F., either in a pre-heated furnace, a hand held torch, or for porcelain enamels fused to glass, in a kiln. For metal, in a preheated furnace the article may be fired from 1 to 5 minutes, depending on size or technique. The article is removed and allowed to cool to room temperature. Subsequent coats, normally different colors are applied. Sometimes many firings are required to bring about the desired results. For fusing porcelain enamels to glass, the article is placed into a room temperature kiln and the heat is brought up according to the appropriate firing schedule to the maturation temperature, then brought down to an annealing temperature and held there for a period of time to relieve stresses in the glass, then brought back down to room temperature before removing the article.

How to Mix Cobalt Blue

Learning the art of mixing colors is a necessity for any artist. Most artist painting kits come with a selection of basic colors. The kits typically contain cadmium yellow, cadmium red, phthalo green, ultramarine blue, titanium white and mars or ebony black. Most artists need a wider range of colors for paintings or crafts. If you want to make a color like cobalt blue, purchase ultramarine blue or a kit, and buy a separate tube of turquoise blue. When you mix these colors correctly, the paint turns a bright cobalt blue.

Step 1

Thin the ultramarine blue in one mixing container, and thin the turquoise blue in another mixing container. If you use water-based paint, thin it with water. If you use another type of paint, use the appropriate thinner for the medium you use. Make it thin enough so it is easily mixed.

Step 2

Add three parts ultramarine blue paint to the container, and add one part turquoise blue. Add the paint in any order, as long as you keep the ratio correct. If you mix the paint in a small batch, use teaspoons for measuring the colors. If you mix a large batch, use a cup. Stir the paint thoroughly. If it isn’t light enough, mix in a little bit of turquoise blue.

Step 3

Test the paint on a piece of paper. Let it dry thoroughly. Check the color. If it’s too dark, add more turquoise blue. If it’s too light, add a little more ultramarine blue.


See how many colors of blue come from ultramarine blue and turquoise blue. Put a piece of paper on a table. Put a dab of ultramarine blue and a dab of turquoise blue on the paper, and write a plus sign between the two. Write an equal sign after the second color. Mix one part ultramarine blue to one part turquoise blue, and put a dab of the color after the equal sign. Add another dot of turquoise, stir and put a dot of color on the paper. Continue adding dots of turquoise and putting dots of the color on the paper. Start a second line under the mixed colors. Mix one dot of ultramarine blue and turquoise blue. Add a dot of ultramarine blue at a time, and put a dab of each color across the line.

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The Effects of Temperature on Pigments

We produce a variety of high temperature pigments that can improve the appearance, durability, thermal stability and chemical resistance of products used in demanding consumer applications and industrial environments. Produced by a high-temperature calcination process, the mixed metal oxides that make up our range of high temperature pigments are popular in the formulation of surface coatings and building materials. They are also routinely dispersed into polymers and plastics and fine artist paint preparations.

Our high temperature pigments range is designed for universal compatibility and ease of dispersion. Products range from cobalt-based blues, turquoise and green-based pigments to titanate-based chemistries in the yellow to orange color space, and iron-based tan and brown pigments.

We offer a range of high temperature pigments. These mixed metal oxides are chemically engineered to maximize total solar reflectance, particularly in the infrared region. High temperature pigments are used to help keep products cool. They are deployed in applications where heat management is an issue, such as automotive interiors and exteriors, paints for building facades, vinyl siding and fascia systems, and roof coatings and tiles.

Our yellow and orange high temperature pigments are an environment-friendly, high performance alternative to cadmium and lead chromium. With enhanced luminosity and highly reflective properties, these clean, bright high temperature pigments are used mainly in decorative exterior.

coatings – but also find application in adhesive, elastomer and coil coating applications.

In addition, we produce a range of cadmium sulfur selenide products. These highly opaque, bright yellow, orange, red and maroon high temperature pigments have excellent thermal and chemical resistance properties. As such, they lend themselves well to high temperature plastic, glass, enamel and niche artist color applications.

This article comes from venatorcorp edit released