Porcelain enamels, also called Vitreous Enamelling, process of fusing a thin layer of glass to a metal object to prevent corrosion and enhance its beauty. Porcelain enamels iron is used extensively for such articles as kitchen pots and pans, bathtubs, refrigerators, chemical and food tanks, and equipment for meat markets. In architecture it serves as facing for buildings. Being a glass, porcelain enamels has the properties of glass: a hard surface, resistance to solution, corrosion, and scratching. Enamelware is usually quite resistant to acid and impact, but may crack if the base metal is deformed.
In general, base items consist of fabricated steel, iron castings such as bathtubs and stoves, or, for kitchenware, a good grade of low-carbon sheet iron formed in the shape of the utensil by pressing or drawing, by spinning, and by trimming, with handles, spouts, and ears welded in place.
The base items are cleaned by physical means such as sandblasting or by pickling in acid. Next a coating mixture of ground glass, clay, and water is applied and dried. The ware then is fired in a furnace. For cast-iron dry-process porcelain enamels, powdered glass is dusted over the hot ware; as it melts it forms a continuous layer of enamel. For wet-process porcelain enamels, a second liquid layer of cover enamel is applied.
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