The History of the Cadmium Red

Cadmium red came into favor in the 20th century, becoming commercially available in 1910. The color of natural vermilion, cadmium red is known for its color-fastness.

Henri Matisse a particular fan of the brilliantly colored pigment, and was the first prominent painter to use it in his artwork. Though the levels of cadmium sulfide in the pigment are not very toxic, in 2014 the European Union threatened a potential cadmium ban over concerns that it could pollute the water supply when artists cleaned their brushes. Luckily, further research proved that these fears were unfounded and cadmium red continues to remain a beloved member of many artists’ palettes.


Fun fact: Matisse tried, unsuccessfully, to convince Renoir to use cadmium red. Though they were close friends, Renoir quickly switched back to his previous pigment after giving it one try.

This article comes from mymodernmet edit released

What Is Porcelain Enamel Cookware?

Porcelain enamel cookware refers to pots and pans made of metal that’s coated with a form of glass called porcelain enamel, which is bonded to the iron, steel, stainless steel or aluminum metal to form the body of the cookware. Porcelain enamel cookware from a host of manufacturers offers a huge variety of solid colors and designs on an easy-to-clean surface.


Quality Differences

Porcelain enamel provides a hard, lustrous finish that won’t scratch, corrode, fade or peel with normal use. However, it may chip or crack if the utensil is dropped on a hard surface. Most porcelain enamel cookware has an outside enamel coating, with teflon or plain metal on the inside. It comes in a wide range of prices. Price differences are based on metal thickness, number of porcelain enamel coats, color and design, and accessories such as covers and high-temperature plastics for handles. Better grades of porcelain enamel cookware have seamless coatings.


Enamelware is a variety of porcelain enamel cookware that’s distinguished by having a porcelain enamel coating on the inside as well as the outside. Enamelware has a base of steel, stainless steel or cast iron. The porcelain coating is applied after the utensil is formed to create a smooth, non-porous surface inside and out. Enamelware isn’t affected by heat, humidity or food acids and can be used to cook, bake or roast foods, or as a serving or storage utensil. Cheap enamelware can scratch or chip easily; high-quality ware has a thicker enamel coating that resists scratches and chips.

Cookware Cautions

Porcelain enamel cookware is very strong and durable, with excellent heat-transfer characteristics. It doesn’t react with acidic foods like tomatoes, and you can use any type of metal or plastic cooking utensils. But there are some things you shouldn’t do with this cookware. For instance, you shouldn’t use it over high heat for extended time periods. Extreme high temperatures can melt the porcelain enamel coating. And you shouldn’t allow porcelain enamel cookware to boil dry, especially on a glass or ceramic cooktop. This can crack the finish.

Cleaning Porcelain Enamel

Porcelain enamel is quick and easy to clean. This cookware is stick-resistant, and resists staining and scratching. Clean your cookware while it’s still warm; don’t let it sit around until food residue dries and hardens. Use a dish sponge or a plastic or nylon dish scrubber. Don’t use steel wool soap pads or abrasive household cleaners as these can scratch the finish over time. Alternatively, you can put porcelain enamel cookware in a dishwasher after wiping out any food residue.

This article comes from hunker edit released

Black Oxide Coating: What Is Black Oxide?

Black Oxide, sometimes called blackening, is the act of converting the top layer of a ferrous material with a chemical treatment. Treating fasteners with a black oxide coating not only adds a nice clean black look but can also add a mild layer of corrosion and abrasion resistance. To achieve the maximum in corrosion resistance, black oxide can either be waxed or oiled to add an extra layer of protection. The wax coating may dull the color of the treatment but provides the best resistance. The black oxide treatment is also referred to as gun bluing.

When fasteners are dipped into the black oxide bath materials (warm and hot processes) the harsh chemical components convert the top layer into magnetite. Black Oxide Stainless Steel Nuts Bolts and Washers are the most common form of black oxide fastener available. Prized both for the corrosion resistance of stainless steel with the added benefits of the black oxide treatment.

The Black Oxide Processes

Blackening can be achieved in a number of different ways. There are three main ways to do this. If you are interested in the specifics of each type check out this article from Wikipedia.

Hot Bath

The process of treating the fasteners in different chemicals in order to convert the surface material into magnetite. The process is completed by dipping the fasteners into different tanks and occasionally placed in water. Once the process of dipping is completed the top layer of the fastener is porous and a layer of oil is applied. The oil seeps into the material adding that extra corrosion resistance to rust.

Cold Coating

The cold process applies a compound (copper selenium) onto the fasteners at room temperature. This process is more convenient for working in house as it does not require many chemicals at heated temperatures to apply. Once applied it is considered weaker than the other forms of oxidization until a layer of oil or wax is applied to the surface.

Mid-Temperature Bath

Like the hot bath treatment method but does not produce the same toxic fumes of the hot bath and the surface is converted to magnetite at a much lower temperature. This method can also meet the same military standards that the hot bath version produces.

Benefits Of Black Oxide Fasteners

  • Does not significantly change the dimensions of the fasteners as hot dip galvanizing does.
  • A cheaper alternative to other methods of corrosion resistance such as electroplating.

This article comes from albanycountyfasteners edit released

Glass Painting – Vitreous Enamel Powder

Enamel supplements – For Medium Temperature Enamels for Copper, Gold, Silver, Low Carbon Steel, Window Glass, Stained Glass, Bulls-eye and Spectrum Glass, Effetre (Moretti), 400 Series Stainless Steel and Pottery (A.K.A. Ceramics)

Glass Painting – Vitreous Enamel Powder

A series of vitreous enamel powders which fuse slightly below 1200ºF. Mix with your favorite painting medium.

The Glass Painting Powders will attach to glass at 1250 degrees F. They will gloss between 1300 and 1400 degrees F. They may be taken up to 1450 degrees F. without loss of color. Firing times and temperatures are only guides. Your actual experience may indicate the firing may need to be more or less time and temperature.

This article comes from thompsonenamel edit released

History of Vitreous Enamel

Vitreous enamel, also known as porcelain enamel, has been used for thousands of years. Initially used for religious and ceremonial items and then also for Jewellery of the highest quality. The application of vitreous enamel is described as enamelling. The application of enamel to domestic articles such as pots and pans probably started in the early 19th century in central Europe.

The first metal used for this purpose was cast iron. Today, vitreous enamel can be applied to copper, gold, silver, cast iron, steel and aluminium, dependent on the enamel formula. Production of vitreous enamelled articles varies from craftsmen producing one off items in precious metal to factories producing up to 12000 cookers per week with a very high proportion of the parts coated with vitreous enamel.

This article comes from wgball edit released

High Gloss Industrial Enamel Surface Coating

Industrial Enamel is a modified single pack urethane enamel made in a high gloss finish. It can be applied to a variety of surfaces including Concrete, Timber and Metal Surfaces that have been primed with a suitable Metal Primer. Industrial Enamel is for interior use only.


Industrial Enamel has excellent durability for a single pack coating. It has very good corrosive and abrasive properties. It is hard-wearing when cured and has excellent Gloss and Colour retention.


All surfaces must be free from Rust, Oil, Grease, and all other surface contamination. Bare concrete should be acid etched to increase surface porosity.


Brush, roller, spray. Stir thoroughly before use. Use a good quality brush and a good quality solvent resistant sleeve. Spray application will depend on the type of finish required.


For spray application thin 10% – 15% Mineral Turps. Do not thin for brush or roll applications. For bare concrete thin the first coat by 20% – 25% using Mineral Turps.

Drying and Recoating

Industrial Enamel will be touch dry after 25mins (at 25°C) and can be recoated within 4 hours or after 24 hours.

This article comes from nutechpaint edit released

The Use of Mixed Metal Oxide Pigments in Industrial Coatings

Mixed metal oxide pigments offer a multitude of benefits for the coatings formulator, including excellent outdoor durability, chemical resistance and heat stability.

Mixed metal oxide (MMO) pigments, also known as complex inorganic color pigments (CICPs), have been around since the early 1800s. Their use in the ceramic and pottery industries is well known due to their overall inertness, which contributes to outstanding heat, chemical and UV resistance. The use of MMOs in industrial coatings is less common and more for special purposes. This paper will discuss the benefits of formulating coatings with MMOs as a replacement for, or in conjunction with, the more common organic types.

Mixed metal oxide pigments are compounds comprised of a group of two or more metals and oxygen. The most common crystal structures are rutile (MeO2) hematite (Me2O3) or spinel (Me3O4). Metals commonly present include: cobalt, iron, trivalent chrome, tin, antimony, titanium, manganese and aluminum. Different metal combinations produce a wide spectrum of hues ranging from black to brown to green, blue, yellow and red. All MMOs are produced by a calcination process consisting of an intimate mixture of appropriate metal precursor materials being fired at temperatures of 800 to 1300 °C. It is this calcining process that creates the extremely stable metal oxide bonds. The chemical stability of these bonds affords the outstanding durability of this class of color pigments.

UV Durability

The chemical inertness of inorganic MMOs renders their excellent resistance to UV radiation and the elements encountered in the most extreme outdoor environments. Most organic pigments degrade when exposed for more than a few years in UV-intense tropical environments. High-performance organic pigments that do provide acceptable durability are typically very expensive, commanding two to four times the cost of a metal oxide pigment. MMOs are therefore the colorant material of choice for architectural coatings requiring extremely high durability such as the performance specified in AAMA 2605-05 (Architectural Aluminum Manufacturers Association). This specification calls for maintenance of color and gloss after 10 years exposure in south Florida.

Chemical Resistance

The exceptionally stable chemical bonds characteristic of MMO pigments make them insoluble in most chemicals including strong acid and alkali, and virtually all organic solvents. Because of this insolubility, coatings formulated with MMOs will not lose color due to pigment degradation even with the most extreme exposure to aggressive chemicals. Atmospheric pollution including acid rain, volcanic fallout and waste incineration does not chemically attack these pigments. Moreover, coatings requiring resistance to strong chemical exposure such as laboratory and chemical manufacturing facilities can use MMOs and be assured of color stability.

Heat Resistance

The thermal stability of MMOs is well known in the ceramic and pottery industries. This class of pigments is processed for hours at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1300 °C in their manufacture. Consequently, they are chemically and color stable at these temperatures in service. As mentioned, the ceramic industry has used mixed metal oxides for color glazes for centuries. The glazes used in ceramics are regularly fired at temperatures of 985 to 1300 °C (1800 to 2350 °F) without significant color shift. The use of MMOs in thermally stable coating formulations such as those based on silicone (polysiloxane) resins brings a palette superseding the traditional black and silver high-heat choices. This brings an attractive array of color possibilities to the designer of specialized and sport transportation such as motorcycles, ATVs and jet skis.

This article comes from pcimag edit released