What Is Enamel Paint?

Enamel paint is defined more by its qualities than by its content. In the broadest sense, enamel paint means any solvent-based paint that dries to a hard, vitreous (glass-like) shell. Solvent-based paints are also called oil-based paints, in contrast with water-based paints.

Enamel paint springboards off of its root words “smelt” or “melt,” since true enamel is a glass coating that is melted or kiln-baked at extremely high temperatures onto metal or ceramics. Note, however, that enamel paint bears no similarities with the enamel of molten glass, as there is no glass content in this kind of paint. Even traditional baked enamel finishes, long used for vehicles, have nothing to do with glass. The baking is simply a fast route to eliminating solvents and VOCs.

In reality, air-dry enamel paints are far softer than true enamels formed in a kiln. Paint manufacturers have further widened the definition by sometimes attaching the word enamel to water-based paints, thus losing the one ingredient that usually ties together all enamel paints: solvents.
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FROM:thespruce.com

Basic knowledge of enamel glaze

It is used for coating and glazing on metal green tires. It is composed of alkali-boron-silicate glass-like substances. Enamel glaze is coated on metal green bodies. After firing, they can be firmly combined with the green bodies. Decorative effect
The basic ingredients of the enamel glaze include the following 5 base agents: 40% to 60% of the total enamel glaze. The ingredients that determine the main properties of the enamel glaze include silicon oxide, zirconia, titanium oxide, and other fluxes: promote the melting of the enamel glaze and improve its process. Properties and physical and chemical properties: Emulsifiers such as sodium oxide, potassium oxide, boron oxide, etc .: Provide good covering ability to the body. Adhesives such as titanium oxide, antimony oxide, zirconia, strontium oxide, etc .: The ceramic glaze and the body are firmly combined with cobalt oxide and nickel oxide. Copper oxide, antimony oxide, molybdenum oxide, and other colorants: Various colors are given to the enamel glaze to achieve decorative effects. The components are cobalt oxide in bright blue; copper oxide in green or red; chromium oxide in dark green; iron oxide in ochre red, etc. The amount of such oxides is generally 0.1 to 2.5%

It is used for coating and glazing on metal green tires. It is composed of alkali-boron-silicate glass-like substances. Enamel glaze is coated on metal green bodies. After firing, they can be firmly combined with the green bodies. Decorative effect
The basic ingredients of the enamel glaze include the following 5 base agents: 40% to 60% of the total enamel glaze. The ingredients that determine the main properties of the enamel glaze include silicon oxide, zirconia, titanium oxide, and other fluxes: promote the melting of the enamel glaze and improve its process. Properties and physical and chemical properties: Emulsifiers such as sodium oxide, potassium oxide, boron oxide, etc .: Provide good covering ability to the body. Adhesives such as titanium oxide, antimony oxide, zirconia, strontium oxide, etc .: The ceramic glaze and the body are firmly combined with cobalt oxide and nickel oxide. Copper oxide, antimony oxide, molybdenum oxide, and other colorants: Various colors are given to the enamel glaze to achieve decorative effects. The components are cobalt oxide in bright blue; copper oxide in green or red; chromium oxide in dark green; iron oxide in ochre red, etc. The amount of such oxides is generally 0.1 to 2.5%

Melted fully-mixed batches are melted and quenched into a stable enamel glaze at a high temperature (1250 ~ 1400) through a series of physical and chemical reactions. Some of the melts must be fully melted after being melted, and some of them will be semi-melted after being quenched There are three crucible furnaces: crucible furnace furnaces and rotary furnaces, which are also called round furnaces. The batch materials are melted in the crucible and melted at high temperature to complete the melting process. Multiple crucibles are placed to melt different enamels, but the output is small. The thermal efficiency is low. The pool furnace uses continuous operation to feed the materials directly into the furnace for high temperature melting. ) The furnace furnace has a large output, high thermal efficiency, high energy and stable operation, but can only melt a single variety of enamel glaze rotary furnace materials at the same time. The molten horizontal fuel furnace is injected from the end of the cylinder furnace and turned over. The batch is made to melt and operate intermittently. This method has a large output and low heat consumption. The melting quality is more uniform.

Grinding the enamel glaze block into glaze slurry or glaze powder glaze slurry for dipping, coating, electrophoresis, or electrostatic spray glaze powder for spraying, spraying, or electrostatic spraying. Commonly used grinding equipment is the inner lining of a batch ball mill. And ball stones are usually made of quartz hard ceramic or corundum

The types are usually divided into bottom glaze and side glaze. According to the material of the body, it is divided into steel enamel glaze, cast iron enamel glaze, aluminum enamel glaze, copper enamel glaze, and gold and silver enamel glaze. Among them, steel enamel glaze and cast iron enamel glaze application are divided according to the characteristics of enamel glaze. According to the characteristics of enamel glaze, titanium glaze, antimony glaze, etc. are divided into acid-resistant glazes, alkali-resistant glazes with good mechanical properties, wear-resistant glazes, microcrystalline glazes with good mechanical properties, and luminous glazes with optical characteristics, high-temperature glazes with thermal characteristics, etc.

The main effect of the enamel glaze which is directly coated on the green body is to make the green body and the top glaze have a strong bond (adherence). The base glaze can be divided into nickel base glaze, cobalt base glaze, cobalt nickel base glaze, antimony molybdenum base. Cobalt and nickel base glazes such as glazes and mixed base glazes have the widest application range. Antimony molybdenum base glazes are milky white, also known as white base glazes. They have the lowest cost. They are commonly used as base glazes for daily enamels. Mixed base glazes are made by mixing several base glazes in proportion. Improve the firing process performance and improve the adhesion effect of enamel with the green body. It is often used as a base glaze for thick-walled large enamel products with a long firing time.

Glazed glaze Glazed glaze coated on the surface of the product can be divided into milky glaze, colored glaze, transparent glaze, etc .; according to its characteristics, it can be divided into acid-resistant glaze, alkali-resistant glaze, wear-resistant glaze, microcrystalline glaze, luminous glaze, high-temperature glaze, and insulating glaze.

Milky white glaze: Milky white which gives the top glaze strong hiding power. According to the type of opacifying agent in the glaze, it is mainly divided into titanium white glaze, antimony white glaze, and the titanium dioxide in the former porcelain glaze is recrystallized during firing to give the porcelain glaze super milky properties. The thinner layer is the most widely used surface glaze for daily enamels; the latter has an opacifying effect that is inferior to that of titanium dioxide, so the antimony surface porcelain layer is often used in cast iron bath glazes or other non-food enamel products.

Colored glaze: Add coloring agent to milky white glaze. The coloring agent can be added by melting or ball milling. Color glazes mainly include titanium color glaze and antimony color glaze.

Transparent glaze: porcelain glaze with no opacifying effect and transparent appearance is often coated with a layer of transparent glaze to enhance gloss. It is also often used as a base glaze for grinding and coloring. The transparent glazes commonly used for decorative flower glazes are mainly Titanium dioxide transparent glaze

Chemical characteristics Glaze: There are acid-resistant and alkali-resistant glazes. The content of silica in the acid-resistant glaze composition is greater than 65%. It is mainly used for coating chemical machinery enamel products. Alkali-resistant glaze composition is often introduced with a large amount of zirconium dioxide. Chrome oxide titanium dioxide can also be introduced to improve the resistance. Alkali properties

Mechanical properties glaze: wear-resistant glaze can be used to increase the wear resistance of the glaze in two ways. One is to add abrasive components such as silicon carbide boron nitride to the porcelain glaze; the other is to micro-crystallize the porcelain glaze to obtain good wear resistance. Microcrystalline enamel

Optical characteristics glaze: The luminous glaze is added to the enamel glaze by introducing luminous substances such as zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide.

Thermal characteristics glaze: high-temperature glaze can be used in the temperature above 750 temperature enamel glaze resistance to rapid temperature change performance good enamel composition does not allow alkali metal oxides often contain a large amount (up to 40%) boron oxide and a small amount of beryllium oxide still need to be ground Adding a certain amount of refractory substance such as alumina, chromium oxide and other high-temperature glazes are often used for the protection of jet components or for high-temperature coating of atomic energy reactors.

Electrical characteristics glaze: The resistance glaze is an insulating enamel glaze with a large resistivity. Its composition does not allow alkali metal oxides. It is often used as an insulating material for wires or as an insulating coating material for printed circuit boards.

The enamel enamel enamel enamel enamel products have a coefficient of thermal expansion larger than that of the general face glaze, which has a wider firing range and better elasticity. The edge enamel has a variety of colors and is often used for edge decoration.

NonStick Cookware Alternatives – Porcelain Enamel Cookware

What is Porcelain Enamel Cookware?

Porcelain enamel is made by heating a powdered glass formulation known as a frit to a very high temperature (at least 1380 degrees Fahrenheit). At this point, the frit liquefies and flows over the substrate (usually steel, cast iron or aluminum) and forms a very hard, durable finish. (Learn more about porcelain enamel.)

Is Porcelain Enamel Cookware Safe?

20200115At one time, porcelain enamel cookware was known to contain unsafe levels of lead and cadmium. Fortunately, modern manufacturing has now reduced these elements to amounts well below that permitted by the United States Food and Drug Administration. To be safe, consumers should only purchase high-quality products made by reputable firms. Avoid off-brands and cheap products not approved for sale in the United States.

Porcelain enamel cookware combines beauty, safety, and performance. Like ceramic cookware, enamelware is nonstick and does not have the potential toxicity issues of Teflon. Not surprisingly, porcelain enamel cookware has become very popular.

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Cobalt Blue Suit

The Cobalt Blue Suit by Allure Men offers a vibrant take on the classic blue suit. The rich cobalt coloring of the fabric allows for a bright and fresh appearance, impeccably crafted to give you the sophisticated look you crave. The slim and modern fit options of the cobalt pants give you the flexibility to choose your exact fit.

Make the Cobalt Blue Suit by Allure Men your next style for the exciting events in your life. Whether you’re standing by your buddy’s side on his wedding day, or attending a party and want to make a strong first impression, this suit will fit your needs. Lightweight and breathable, this suit is suitable for wear all year round. Pair with tan, black, or heather grey pants for a truly unique look.

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5 Benefits of Porcelain Enamel Cookware

1. Light Weight Pans

Porcelain enamel cookware is sturdy enough for a professional kitchen, yet light enough for everyday use. A 12 inch porcelain enamel skillet can weigh just 2.1 lbs, as compared to a 12 inch non-stick skillet that weight over 5 lbs.

2. Can Go in the Oven

Unlike most non-stick cookware that can only be used on the stove top up to the medium heat setting, Porcelain Enamel Cookware can be used on the stove top or in the oven up to 350° Fahrenheit. This allows you to use one pan for the entire cooking process, especially if the dish requires starting on the stove top and finishing in the oven, such as browning meat or chicken to sear the outside, then putting in the oven to cook the inside.

3. Stay Cool Handles

One of the biggest issues with porcelain enamel cookware that goes in the oven is that the handles can get too hot to touch. The unique rubberized stay cool handles prevent burns when removing from the oven or stove top.

4. Comes in Several Exciting Colors

While many non-stick skillets and pans come in just black, grey, or silver, the Porcelain Enamel II Cookware Set, for example, comes in several exciting two-tone gradient colors, including: Blue, Red, Orange, Fennel, Green and Purple, to match your kitchen, favorite color or even your personality.

5. Scratch Resistant Outer Shell

Due to the baked on enamel external coating, porcelain enamel non-stick cookware is scratch resistant, and can hold up in even the most demanding kitchens.

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Black Cobalt Pigments And Dispersions

We are one of the world’s providers of pigments and dispersions, including Inorganic and black cobalt pigments, functional pigments and color pigment preparations.

Our custom black cobalt pigments and formulations provide our customers with specific properties such as aesthetics (shade, tinting strength, opacity), process and service life performance (dispersibility, heat fastness, chemical fastness, migration, light and weather fastness) and functionality (anticorrosion, NIR reflectance, camouflage, tanning) at the most competitive cost.

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Porcelain cover coat enamel frits raw material for enamel coating

Porcelain enamel frit is a glass of a particular chemical composition and physical nature determined for the surface protection of metal.

Enamel frit is a form of glass bonded to metal on a molecular level at high temperature.20191209

This results in a typical and unique composite material of glass and metal, which combines the positive qualities of both materials.

Cover coat have good opacity and gloss with clean and fine surface, but they can’t be directly coated on the body metal, they require the matched ground coat enamel frits. The firing temperature of cover coat enamel frit is lower than that of ground coat enamel frit.

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Porcelain Enamel Ground Coat

Porcelain enamels are glass coatings applied primarily to products or parts made of sheet steel, cast iron, and aluminum to improve appearance and to protect the metal surface.

This article describes the types of porcelain enamels, and details porcelain enamel ground coat for these materials. It provides a list of steels suitable for porcelain enamel ground coat and discusses the most important factors considered in the selection of steel for porcelain enameling.

The article briefly presents the preparation methods of these materials for porcelain enamel ground coat and covers the methods, and furnaces of porcelain enameling. It examines the role of coating thickness, firing time and temperature, metal substrate, and color on the performance of enameled surfaces. The article concludes with a discussion on the properties of enameled surfaces, factors considered in process control, and test procedures for evaluating the quality of enameled surfaces.

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The Vitreous Enamel Process

Vitreous enamel or porcelain enamel is the name given to glass bonding to a metal surface by fusion. A wide range of colors are produced by incorporating certain elements to the glass, mostly transition metals.

History

There is no evidence on how or where vitreous enamel making started, the earliest known articles are six enameled gold rings dating from the 13th century BC discovered in a Mycenaean tomb at Kouklia, Cyprus.

The Greeks were enameling as early as the 5th century BC. Julius Caesar found the Celtic inhabitants of Britain enameling in the 1st century BC.

During the Byzantine era (4th through 12th centuries) many enamel religious works were made. In Limoges, France the use of enamel painting technique was perfected in the 15th Century.

China’s earliest enamel works date from the 14th century, enameling was introduced in the area by the Muslims. Japan began enameling in the mid 1800’s with high quality results.

In the second half of the 19th century Russian jeweler Peter Carl Fabergé captivated Europe with his fantastic enameled eggs.

Vitreous Enamel Different Techniques

The glass used to enamel is crushed to a powder finer than granulated sugar and coarser than flour. Different elements especially metals are added to the glass to color it. This colored glass powder is then bonded to a metal surface, usually copper, silver or gold by fusion. The enameled metal piece is fired between 1000° to 1600° F in a kiln.

After 1 to 10 minutes, the piece is removed and cooled down to room temperature. Subsequent coats, or the adding of different colors, are applied. 10 to 20 firings are required to get the desired results. When ready the piece is polished.

The process mentioned above is the same for every enameling technique, what varies is the way the metal surface is prepared to receive the enamel or how the enamel is applied to it.

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Inorganic Pigments

Inorganic pigment is a kind of stable chemical physical structure formed by solid-phase reaction of many metal oxides under high temperature calcination (>800). The inorganic pigment features Excellent light resistance, weather resistance, high temperature resistance; Good covering power, tinting power, dispersion; no bleeding, no migration; Excellent acid-proof, alkali resistance, chemical resistance; Compatible with most thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic.

Applications of Inorganic Pigment

Outdoor plastic and masterbatch: such as PVC decorative panels, plastic steel window profiles, engineering plastics, masterbatch and so on.

Coatings: fluorocarbon coatings, powder coatings, coil coatings, automotive coatings, traffic marking coatings, camouflage coatings, aircraft coating, marine coatings, ultra-durable outdoor architectural coatings, printing inks and industrial coatings.

Building products: cement, concrete, roof construction materials, ceramics, stained glass.

Environmental areas: food packaging containers, plastic utensils, plastic toys, painting coatings.

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